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2- Perception, Personality, Emotion.pdf

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University of British Columbia
COMM 292
Kejia Zhu

PART 1: UNDERSTANDING THE W ORKPLACE Chapter 2: Perception, Personality, & Emotions ▯WHAT IS PERCEPTION, & WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? perception = process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions to give meaning to their environment - People’s behaviour is based on their perce ption of what reality is ▯FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION Factors  attitudes - interpretation is heavily influenced by perceiver’s personal  motives characteristics Perceiver  interests (e.g. we often interpret others ’ behaviours based on our own  past experiences characteristics – we see what we expect to see )  expectations - cultural differences  novelty - physical & time closeness ▯ unrelated objects grouped together  motion (e.g. objects close to each other perceived together) Target  sounds (e.g. assignment of new manager + increase in sales:  size may not be related, but b/c of timing, perceived as related)  background - similarity▯, probability▯that they be perceived as a common  proximity group  time - elements in surrounding environment influence perceptions Situation  work setting (e.g. shorts & T-shirts in social setting ▯ appropriate  social setting in work setting ▯ not appropriate) ▯PERCEPTUAL ERRORS = when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual, we try to determine whether it’s internally/externally caused - Internally(Int.) caused: under personal control Externally(Ext.) caused: result from outside causes; person forced by situation 1) Distinctiveness whether an individual acts similarly across various High(Seldom)▯ Ext. situations Attribution Low(Frequent)▯ Int. (How often does the person do this in other situations?) Theory 2) Consensus whether everyone faced w/ similar situation responds in High(Frequent)▯Ext. the same way E Low(Seldom)▯ Int. (How often do other people do this in similar situations?) R E 3) Consistency 3 whether individual’s action is repeated over time High(Frequent)▯ Int. (How often did the person do this in the past?) Low(Seldom)▯ Ext. P ART 1: U NDERSTANDING THE W ORKPLACE Fundamental attribution error = tendency to underestimate influence of Ext. factors & overestimate influence of Int. factors when judging others ’ behaviours Self-serving bias = tendency for ppl to attribute their own successes to Int. factors while putting blame for failures on Ext. factors = ppl’s selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background, Selective experience, attitudes Perception - “speed-read” others, we see what we want to see ▯ risk: drawing inaccuratunwarranted conclusions from ambiguous situation = drawing general impression of an individual on basis of a single characteristic (e.g. student rates prof ▯ may give more weight to a single trait) Halo Effect - most extreme when: - perceived traits are ambiguous & have moral tones - perceiver had limited experience w/ the traits being judged = our reaction to 1 person is often influenced by other ppl we recently encountered Contrast - we don’t evaluate a person in isolation Effects (e.g. candidate receives more favorable evaluation if preceded by mediocre applicants, but less favorable eva luation if preceded by strong applicants) = attributing one’s own characteristics to other ppl Projection - ppl perceive others accor ding to what they themselves are like = judging someone based on one ’s perception of the group to which that person belongs - widespread, although may be inaccurate & lead to prejudice Stereotyping Prejudice = unfounded dislike of a person/group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group - has –ve emotional content added ▯WHY DO PERCEPTION AND JUDGMENT MATTER? - Hiring & employee’s performance appraisal (promotions, pay raises, continuation of employment ) depends very much on perceptual process/bias of employers *study found out managers in HK & US were more likely to prom ote ppl similar to themselves ▯ ppl in organizations are always judging each other! Self-fulfilling prophecy = a person will behave in ways consistent w/ how he is perceived by others (Pygmalion effect) ▯ expectations become reality ▯PERSONALITY Personality = stable patterns of behaviour & consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to & interacts w/ others P ART 1: UNDERSTANDING THE W ORKPLACE Personality Determinants - some personality traits may be built into genetic code Heredity e.g. shyness, fear, distress - culture in which we’re raised - early conditioning Environmental - norms among family, friends, social groups Factors e.g. North Americans’s emphasis on industriousness, success, competition Protestant work – rather than on family, cooperation, getting along with others - demands of different situations call forth diff. aspects of one ’s personality Situational - not yet have neat classification scheme that would tell us the impact of various Factors situations; we only know certain situations limit many behaviours, vice versa Personality Traits = enduring characteristics that describe an individual ’s behaviour (16 primary/source traits) Methods used to determine personality traits: = personality test that taps 4 characteristics and classifies ppl into 1 of 16 personality types (e.g. INTJ: visionary, ESTJ: organizers) - even tho not proved to be valid measure, still used widely - Classified along these dimensions: Extraversion (E) / refers to how ppl focus themselves: Myers-Briggs Introversion (I) inside (introversion) / outside (extraversion) Type how ppl gather info: Sensing (S) / Indicator very systematically (sensing) / relying on intuition Intuiting (N) (MBTI) (intuiting) how ppl prefer to make decisio ns: Thinking (T) / Feeling (F) objectively, impersonally / subjectively, interpersonally (thinking) (feeling) how ppl order their daily life: Judging (J) / being decisive, planned / spontaneous, flexible Perceiving (P) (judging) (perceiving) - person’s comfort level w/ relationships Extraversion - describes degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, assertive : - propensity to defer to others Big Five Agreeableness - describes degree to which a person is good-natured, Model T D cooperative, trusting 5 - measure of reliability Conscientiousness - describes degree to which person is responsible, dependable, persistent, achievement -oriented P ART 1: U NDERSTANDING THE W ORKPLACE - ability to withstand stress Emotional Stability - describes degree to which person is calm, self-confident, secure - person’s range of interests & fascination w/ novelty Openness to - describes degree to which person is imaginative, Experience artistically sensitive, intellectual Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB A TTRIBUTE DEFINITION degree to which internals = ppl who believe that they control their destinies ppl believe they - greater motivation, salary increases are in control of - believe their efforts will result in good performance their own fate - higher salaries Locus of Control externals = ppl who believe that their lives are controlled by outside forces (luck, chance) - less satisfied w/ & less involved in their jobs - higher absenteeism rates, more alienated from work setting degree to which - High Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, individual is persuade others more pragmatic, - High Machs do better when: Machiavellianism maintains 1) they interact face to face w/ others (rather than indirectly) 2) situation has min. # of rules & regulations (allows room emotional for improvising) “If it works, use it” 3) emotional involvement w/ details irrelevant o winning distance, believes that ends can distracts low Machs - high Machs… good employees? depends on type of job. justify means ▯good in jobs that require bargaining skills (labour negotiation) or offer rewards for winning (commissioned sales) degree to which High SEs: - take more risks, believe they have ability to succeed individuals - more likely to take unconventional jobs like/dislike - e
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