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4- Theories of Motivation.pdf

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COMM 292
Kejia Zhu

P ART 2: STRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE Chapter 4: Theories of Motivation ▍WHAT IS MOTIVATION? motivation = intensity (how hard a person tries), direction, persistence (measure of how long a person can maintain his effort) of effort a person shows in reaching a goal - intensity needs to be in the right, beneficial direction to lead to favourable performance - level of motivation varies among & within individuals at diff. times Theory X ( –ve ) = assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it & must be coerced(forced), controlled, or threatened w/ punishment to achieve goals favours extrinsic motivator = motivation that comes from outside the person (pay, bonus, tangible rewards) Theory Y ( +ve ) = assumption that empl oyees like work, are creative, seek responsibility & will exercise self-direction and self-control if they’re committed to the objectives favours intrinsic motivator = person’s internal desire to do sth, due to interest, challenge, personal satisfaction - individuals genuinely care about their work, look for ways to improve, energized ▍NEEDS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Needs Theories = describe types of needs that must be met to motivate individuals ( what motivates ppl) - ) Physiological hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, bodily needs A E security, protection from physical / O R T L O E Safety emotional harm ( affection, belongingness, acceptance, ) Social friendship internal: self-respect, autonomy, T Maslow’s ( Esteem achievement Hierarchy of Needs MASLOW external: status, recognition, attention R Theory O growth, achieving one’s potential, - Self- self-fulfillment I H Actualization - the drive to become what one’s capable of becoming - individual moves up the hierarchy - no need is ever fully met, but a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates - theory generally not validated (provides no empirical evidence) PART 2: S TRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE - individual’s attitude toward work determines his success/failure - his survey → replies ppl gave when they felt good about their jobs were very diff. from replies given when they felt bad (satisfaction → intrinsic factors; dissatisfaction → extrinsic) - opposite of Satisfaction = No Satisfaction opp. of Dissatisfaction = No Dissatisfaction Motivation- - Motivators: factors that lead to job satisfaction (achievement, Hygiene HERZBERG recognition, growth, responsibility) Theory Hygiene Factors: lead to job dissatisfaction (company policy, work conditions, pay) - managers should placate, not motivate, employees Critiques: - procedure used is limited by methodology (self -serving bias) - reliability of methodology questionable - did not really produce a theory (more like an explanation) - no overall measure of satisfaction used (some may dislike parts of their jobs, but still think its acceptable) - inconsistent w/ previous research (ignore situational variables) Existence basic material existence (Maslow’s physiological & safety) Relatedness desire for maintaining interpersonal relationships; ERG Theory social & status (Maslow’s social & external esteem) Growth intrinsic desire for personal development (more valid version ALDERFER (Maslow’s internal esteem need & self -actualization) of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs) Differences w/ Maslow ’s: - more than 1 need may be working @ same time - if satisfaction of a higher-level need is blocked, desire to satisfy a lower-level need inc. Need for Achievement to excel, achieve in relation to a set of (nAch) standards, strive to succeed Need for Power to make others behave in a way that (nPow) they would not have behaved otherwise McClelland’s Need for Affiliation desire for friendly and close McCLELLAND Theory of Needs (nAff) interpersonal relationships - nAch-ers: dislike succeeding by chance, prefer challenge, accept personal responsibility for success/failure, prefer tasks of moderate difficulty - nPow-ers: have impact, be influential, control others, prefer to P ART 2: S TRIVING FOR PERFORMANCE be placed into competitive, status -oriented situations, concerned w/ prestige - nAff-ers: strive for friendship, prefer cooperative (rather than competitive) situations, high degree of mutual understanding - diff. needs suitable for diff. jobs (e.g. nPow → managers) Relationship of Various Needs Theories MASLOW ALDERFER HERZBERG McCLELLAND Hierarchy of Motivation-Hygiene ERG Theory Theory of Needs Needs Theory Self-Actualization Growth Need for Achievement Motivators Esteem Social Relatedness Need for Power Safety Existence Hygiene Factors Physiological Need for Affiliation * needs → when satisfied → motivation Summarizing Various Needs Theories Theory Maslow Aldefer Herzberg McClelland lower-order needs must - > 1 need can be Hygiene factors must - ppl vary in types of Is there be satisfied before one important at the be met if a person is needs they have hierarchy of progresses to same time not to be dissatisfied - motivation and how needs? higher-order needs - if a higher-order (but will NOT lead to well they perform at need not met, satisfaction) work are related to desire to satisfy a whether they have lower-level need Motivators lead to nAch, nPow, or nAff inc. satisfaction Theory’s wide recognition among - a more valid - shows > 1 need tells us that high need practicing managers version of need may operate at the achievers do not impact / (most are familiar with it) hierarchy same time necessarily make good contribution? - tells us that - popularity of giving managers (b/c high achievers will be workers greater achievers are more motivated by jobs responsibility for interested in how they that offer personal planning and do personally) responsibility, controlling their feedback, work – attributed moderate risks to his findings - generally not ignores situational - not really a theory - mixed empirical What validated by variables of motivation support, but theory empirical research - assumes link btwn consistent w/ our support / - little support for satisfaction and knowledge of hierarchical nature of productivity that individual diff’s criticisms? needs was not measured among ppl - criticized for how / demonstrated - good empirical data were support exists on collected/interpreted nAch in particular P ART 2: STRIVING FOR PERFORMANCE ▍PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Process Theories = help us understand actual ways in which ppl can be motivated ( how to motivate ppl) PART 2: STRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE = individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether the outcome is attractive to them Effort → Performance = belief that effort is related to performance (one ’s perception of how probable it is a certain amount of effort will lead to good performance) - Range: 0 ~ 1 Expectancy - Influenced by: - self-esteem - previous success - help from supervisors and subordinates - info - proper materials and equipment Performance → Rewards = belief that performance is related to rewards (one’s perception of whether performing at a certain level will lead to desired outcome & be recognized by someone w/ power to allocate rewards) Instrumentality - Range: -1 ~ +1 (-ve → high performance ↓ chances of getting desired outcome; Expectancy 0 → no relationship btwn performan ce & receiving desired outcome) Theory e.g. low motivation b/c employee believes that no matter how hard he works, performance won ’t be recognized Rewards → Personal Goals = value or importance that one places on a reward (degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals/needs, and Valence the attractiveness of those potential awa
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