CNPS 363 Lecture 004.docx

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Counselling Psychology
CNPS 363
Yarrow Brenda Dyer

CNPS 363 Lecture 4 Topic: Social learning career theory (Planned happenstance) – John Krumboltz Reflect Social learning career theory - Critique of trait and factor (matching) and developmental theories o Those theories assume a stable labor market and don’t take into account potential barriers o Assume a relatively fixed developmental pattern o Do not fully account for the role of the human capacity to learn, problem-solve, adapt and change o A changing person in a changing environment – career decision making is dynamic not definitive Background to Krumboltz: Bandura’s social learning theory - Influenced by Bandura’s social learning theory - Bandura’s three major types of learning experiences in social learning theory: o Instrumental (operant conditioning) : reward and punishment o Associative (classical conditioning): previously neutral event is paired with a positive/negative event/stimulus o Vicarious (observational): learning by observing others Social learning career theory - Krumboltz saw that trait and factor approaches (i.e., interest inventories) help clients make career decisions by providing information, but not deal with change or deal with conflicts & relationships at work - Krumboltz proposes that clients can learn skills for career goal-setting, decision-making, coping and thriving in transition - Career clients can to be empowered to take action, and try new ways of being and thinking Krumboltz Social Learning Theory of Career (SLTC) - The focus of career counseling is on learning new behaviors and ways of thinking - Counselor’s main task is to enhance learning opportunities for clients - Not very assessment based Main assumptions of Krumboltz’ SLTC - One’s career preferences are a result of prior learning experiences - Behavior is best understood as stemming from learned experiences rather than stemming primarily from innate qualities - People are capable of learning new things - Human beings are intelligent problem solvers who strive to control their environment - Uncertainty is an acceptable and positive condition. Can be used to catalyze exploration and create opportunities for new learning. Uncertainty is a GOOD thing - Central proposition: individuals make career decisions based primarily on behaviors (actions) and cognitions (thoughts or beliefs) - Six sub-propositions from this theory about career decisions: o People will express a preference for an occupation:  1. If they have succeeded at tasks they think typical of an occupation (reward/punishment)  2. If role models have been positively reinforced from doing the work (vicarious learning)  3. If someone has spoken positively about the occupation (associative learning) o People will express a dislike for an occupation:  1. If they have failed at tasks they think typical of an occupation  2. If role models have not been reinforced during the work  3. If someone has spoken negatively about the occupation SLTC – Krumboltz - Four determinants of career development and choices: o Genetic endowment o Environmental factors o Learning experiences o Task approach skills Genetic endowment - Aspects that are inherited or innate rather than learned - Gender, physical appearance, predisposition to illness - Special abilities that individuals are born with – artistic, athletic, intelligence - The greater a person’s innate abilities the more likely they’ll respond to learning opportunities Environmental conditions/events - Beyond control of the individual o social conditions: change in society o educational conditions: how available is education in one’s community o occupational conditions: labor market Learning experiences
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