CNPS 363 Lecture 003.docx

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University of British Columbia
Counselling Psychology
CNPS 363
Yarrow Brenda Dyer

CNPS 363 Lecture 3 Career Development Theories - Theory: a group of logically organized laws or relationships that constitute an explanation for a phenomenon in a discipline o Provides a foundation to understand and predict behavior o Provides perspective to help direct/organize information - A counselor’s selection of theory depends on: o The counselor’s personal view o The counselor’s style of counseling Why do we need to know theories? - Helps us extract to apply for the client and the counselor - To guide professional practice as counselor, to choose potential interventions John Holland (trait and factor theory) - Built on Parsons’ 3 steps approach - 4 basic assumptions o 6 personality types: RIASEC o 6 environment types: RIASEC o People search for environments that match their category (matching P & E) o A person will be most satisfied with their career if they’re matched - Predictive of whether someone will like their career but not whether they will be good at it Holland’s types – Realistic - Realistic environment o Makes physical demands on the person; ability to work with things rather than people; need technical competencies and physical agility o Work setting: tools, machines, or animals that the individual manipulates - Realistic personality o Enjoys using tools or machines in their hobbies or work; develop competencies in trade areas, don’t like abstractness or theoretical description o As client: want advice, specific solutions, may be resistant to expressing feelings, concrete communication, value actions over thoughts - Investigative environment o Problem solve by using mathematical and scientific interest and capacities, using abstract reasoning o Occupations that use analytical thinking skills (i.e., computer programmer, doctor). Use methodological thinking vs. human relation skills - Investigative personality o Enjoys activities that use intellect o Enjoy learning and reading scientific literature, and are likely to prefer working independently o As client: enjoys intellectual discussion, may view counselor as collaborator rather than expert, approach problem from rational POV - Artistic environment o Very free and open, encouraging creativity and personal expression; unstructured settings o Work environments encourage personal and emotional expression vs. logical expression (i.e., musicians, artists, writers) - Artistic personality o Like to express self in an unsystematic and creative way. Would like to engage in activities that improve their ability in language, art, music o As client: may prefer non-structured counseling style, introspective and emotion focused, base decisions on emotion and intuition - Social environment o Encourages people to be flexible and understanding of each other, to help others through personal problems, socially responsible o Occupations: generally in education, mental health, social service - Social personality o Interested in helping and enjoys problem solving through discussion and teamwork o Seeks out environments where they can use their verbal and social skills o As client: curious about counseling profession, wish to cooperate fully with counselor’s plans, may do well in groups but talk too much - Enterprising environment o One where possible to engage in the process of managing and persuading others in order to attain goals o Finance and economic issues are of prime importance and risks may be taken o Promotion and power are important in this environment and people tend to be self-confident, sociable, and assertive - Enterprising personality o Focused on wealth, enjoy being with others and like to use verbal skills to sell, persuade, or lead o Generally assertive, popular, and in leadership roles o As client: self assured, verbal, open, may over estimate ability - Conventional environment o An organized environment – needs clerical and organization skills and ability to follow directions. Handles both written and math material - Conventional personality o Values money, being dependable, following rules. Prefers being in control and not having to deal with ambiguity o As client: may present as organized but prefer some direction, may lack initiative and try something new, may present as proud of their abilities Holland’s theory (Continue) - Secondary assumptions o In hexagonal structure, types adjacent to each other share more in common than those opposing (consistency) o Postulates four constructs to describe the relationship between types: congruence, differentiation Holland’s Four Constructs - Congruence: the match between personality and environment o The more similar the personality is to the environment, the more congruent the relationship o MOST IMPORTANT of Holland’s concepts - Differentiation: the degree of definition of an individual’s interests o Interests are considered differentiated when there is a clear distinction between what an individual likes and dislikes o Implications: undifferentiated people are likely to have difficulty in making career decisions - Consistency: internal coherence of hexagonal arrangement o Consistency is not a goal for counseling, lack of consistency does not mean a career choice is poor - Identity: clarity and stability of a person’s current nd future goals and working environment Summary of Holland’s theory - Goals o To assess client’s personality and to find work environments which fit with it - Role of the counselor o To assess the client’s personality and assist in finding environments will fit with client according to Holland type/code o Help
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