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Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 114
Leah May Ver

Crest Highest point Trough Lowest point Wavelength L Distance for one full cycle Swell Series of waves generated from a distance well sorted Wave Height H Vertical distance from crest to trough Amplitude a Onehalf of height Steepness Height divided by wavelength Steepness increased by smaller wavelength Period T Time for one wavelength to pass a point seconds per cycle Frequency f Number of waves per time period cycles per second Celerity c Distance per time period meters per second Often called Speed Water particles move backwards then upwards as trough passes forward then downward as crest passes Circular orbits Energy passes through the water Negligible Net Movement of water Water particles have orbital motion that increases with depth in open water Water remains in place and is medium for wave energy to travel through in open ocean Wave orbits are larger at surface Orbits decrease with depth Orbit is 123 of orbit surface at wave base Orbits disappear below depth 12 L No movement occurs there Deep Water Waves Waves dont feel ocean floor Shallow Water Waves Waves feel ocean floor As waves move into shallower water 1Speed decreases2Wavelength decreases3Height increases4Steepness increases5Period stays the same6Orbitals flatten become elliptical7Waves breakWaves classified by 1 Generating Force Force adding energy to water 2 Restoring Force Force returning water to its undisturbed phase 3 Factors Affecting Growth of Wind Waves 1Wind speed2Wind duration3Fetch Uninterrupted distance over which wind blowsAs factors increase more energy is added and wave height increases Maximum Sea StateFully Developed Sea Excess energy into sea by windcases the energy to escape breaking waves Significant wave height is an average of highest 13 of waves Measured by Beaufort Scale Force KnotsWind Damage Over WaterLand Wave Interference Two three or more waveswith different amplitudes wavelengths and speed
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