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EOSC114 - Earthquakes 3.docx

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Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 114
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EOSC114 - Earthquakes - Part 3 EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS AND LINKS W/OTHER NATURAL HAZARDS: -shaking and ground rupture -liquefaction -land-level changes -landslides -fires -disease  Most ground cracks are produced by liquefaction and mass movement  rupture usually produces a fault scarp (low cliff, extends 100’s of m or km)  Intensity of seismic shaking= ratio of ground acceleration to the acceleration from gravity Resonance: the phenomenon created when the frequency of the ground shaking matches the natural vibrational frequency of the building (Generally: high hz, short period waves damage low buildings/ low hz, long period waves damage tall buildings) Liquefaction: happens at shallow depths when pore water pressures become so high that the water suspends sediments particles allowing the deposit to flow. Land settles irregularly, sediments compacting and water staying in pools on surface. o Earthquakes & landslides are two of the most closely linked natural hazards  Ground shaking and surface rupture can sever electrical power and gas lines, starting fires (difficult to suppress)  Disease outbreaks can occur due to: loss of sanitation and housing, contaminated water supplies, and disruption of public health services NATURAL SERVICE FXNS OF EARTHQUAKES: -ground water and energy resources -mineral resources -landform development  geologic faults produced by earthquakes influence the flow of water, oil, and gas, making them more accessible (through permeable rock and springs)  some valuable mineral are preferentially deposited along faults called veins  earthquakes occurring episodically over 100’s-millions of years can form scenic landscapes PEOPLE CAN CAUSE EARTHQUAKES BY: -building a dam and flooding a valley -injecting liquid waste deep into the ground -detonating underground nuclear explosions Forecast: states that an earthquake of a specified magnitude has a certain probability of occurring in an area within a specified number of years  Prediction specifying an exact time would be more useful, however, cannot make such predictions at present. EARTHQUAKE HAZARD REDUCTION PROGRAMS: 1) Develop an understanding of earthquake sources by obtaining info on the physical properties and mechanical behaviour of faults and developing quantitative models of the earthquake
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