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EOSC114 - Earthquakes 4.docx

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University of British Columbia
Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 114

EOSC114 - Earthquakes - Part 4 COMMUNITY ADJUSTMENTS TO EARTHQUAKE HAZARD: -location of critical facilities  Hospitals, schools, power plants, communication systems, and police and fire stations should be placed in areas tested by microzonation -structural protection  Earthquakes don’t kill people, buildings kill people. Building codes with seismic provisions should be enforced by govs -education  Distribution of pamphlets and videos to the public, instruction on earthquakes in secondary schools, evacuation plans in elementary schools/secondary/home/work, workshops and training sessions for engineers, architects, geologists, and community planners, and provision of info on the internet -availability of insurance and emergency relief  Canada does not offer any form of earthquake insurance, and even if it did, damage would be too great to insure everyone. Would likely step in with relief funds in the event of a catastrophic earthquake  LARGE QUAKES: low frequency, lower pitch  Small quakes: HIGH FREQUENCY, HIGHER PITCH Magnitude: indicates how much energy was released Estimated indirectly since we can never monitor the focus Use seismic wave amplitude and distance to focus (RICHTER MAGNITUDE -> ML) OR Figure out the energy released by the earthquake (any technique), and then convert that energy estimate to a magnitude (MOMENT MAGNITUDE -> MM)* Amplitude of large squiggle and S-P lag time give distance (used to compute ML -> SATURATES AT 6.5) Intensity: is how strong the ground motion is at the felt location 4 important factors earthquake magnitude ground type in softer rocks, shaking is amplified higher frequencies absorbed in harder rocks, no amplification mixture of frequencies distance from epicenter duration of shaking  buildings are built to withstand own weight under gravitational vertical pressure already, but are not good at withstanding horizontal pressure!  effects of resonance in different projected earthquakes in
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