EOSC 114 Fragile System PDF Notes

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Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 114
Leah May Ver

Chapter 1 2012.09.05 - Natural disasters kill disproportionally more people in poor countries, and recovery is slower because means are limited and insurance is less likely Port-Au-Prince Haiti  Double destruction earthquake in 1751 and 1770 led to the policy that buildings can only be constructed with wood, NOT concrete (masonity)  Until 2010, Haiti did not have any seismograph stations to monitor earthquake  Canada and Haiti share bond because many Haitians took refuge from brutal Dubalier father and son dictatorship in 1960s  Governor general Michaelle Jean works as UNESCO special convoy Maule Earthquake, Chile th  6 biggest earthquake since 1904, equivalent to 700 Haiti earthquakes  Ocean floor ruptured along a length of 700 km  Energy caused tsunamis  Had modern building code and effective preparedness program combined to limit casualties and damage  Natural disasters: extreme natural events in which a large amount of energy is released in a short time, causing major consequences o Involves significant casualties, disruption to society, large economic losses, and call for exterior help - Natural disasters occur often when society ignores hazardous conditions in natural environment ***Natural hazards become natural disasters when they intersect with vulnerable communities  Snow avalanches that occur in remote uninhabited places are NOT considered natural disasters ***Natural hazards are inevitable, but natural disasters are NOT Frequency, Return Periods, Magnitude Hazard levels: described using several metrics including frequency, return period, and magnitude Frequency: # of occurrences in a given length of time Return Period: length of time between similar events  Frequency= 1/period Period= 1/frequency (inverse of each other) Magnitude: related to the amount of energy fuelling a natural event Worldwide Trends - Annual occurrence of natural disaster is an average of 5 years, trends upward partly due to the human population doubling time since 1960s - Through trend lines, weather-related disasters (i.e. storms, floods, heat waves, droughts, and wild fires) increase w/ time due to global warming and other issues - Manmade disasters has been declining since 2005  Urban fires, explosions, aviation, and maritime disasters, mining accidents, social unrest, and terrorism ***Success factor: greater awareness about safety= increased investment to achieve safety in workplace and transportation - 2010, natural disasters > manmade disasters - Reduction of disasters is dependent on social choice and prioritization - Fatalities from natural disasters increase w/ time  major ones: earthquake and storms ***Where humans are concentrated, disasters kill more people during each high energy event - Economic losses are increasing w/time  Industries and businesses are knocked out causing loss in productivity and wages for employees left without work - Developed countries experience larger economic losses and fewer deaths - Population growth affects disasters and its fr
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