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Lecture

W2 Analysis on Guns.docx

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Department
Economics
Course
ECON 255
Professor
Ashok Kotwal
Semester
Winter

Description
Analysis on Guns, Germs and Steel - Guns, Germs and Steel are symbols of European domination - Cargo: goods brought to the Guineans land by the Westerners, symbolizes as the white men’s powers. It is in fact, treated with religious reverence - Diamond attempts to reveal the roots of inequalities, why some societies progress faster than the other? - great human civilization have some things in common: great technology, large human civilization, and well-organized workforce - hunting-gathering society, dependency on climate for sustainable supply of food  not enough surplus to stimulate trade - food the traditional society has is not sufficient in nutrition  shorter life span - Ian Kuijt  Stone Age people of the Middle East  discovery of human innovation of “granary” to store food  human civilization develops the ability to fight against draught by storing their food  by planting and harvesting food  surplus is created - Domestication  the way human civilization creates better genes of crops  the way human interrupts with natural process - the highlands of New Guinea  why are they still farmers? Haven’t they developed? - the food we eat is the source of inequality  people in the US obtain better nutritious quality of corps  this theory is too simple - human innovation  animals like cows, goats were first used as the source of food  as human civilization becomes more innovative, cows and goats are used to plough lands  this is the problem in New Guinea; they don’t have big animals to plough the land. Only have animals like pig. Pigs don’t pull ploughs. They are unsuitable as muscle energy to plough the land - Many types of animals  not all animals can be domesticated, some take time to mature, not all can get along with humans, animals have their internally-wired abilities (too coward, unsuitable to work on lands, useless milk etc)  only certain animals like horse, goat, cows can be domesticated  this is what New Guinea doesn’t have - the fertile crescent in the Middle East: this area is geographically blessed, endowed with rich resources  the first time when human civilization emerged - new skills and new technology were created - New Guinea fails to produce surpluses  so, no specialists in other areas  the society doesn’t have to opportunity to innovate - overexploitation of resources lead to resource being extinct  contaminated water - transportation enables domestic animals to be transported to lands that don’t have this kind of animals  from there, human civilization prospers by enabling surplus creation - Can the distribution of wealth of a nation be reduced to wheat and domestic animals?  Diamond’s resolution  critiques: Diamond’s view ignores human culture - Diamond: different nations have different resource abilities  possess different headstarts - Diamond’s answer to the question posed by the New Guinean: geographical advantage  Diamond believes that if New Guinea were blessed with the same resources, they would’ve been able to innovate like the Americans do - November 1532, the collision of New World and Old World civilization  168 Spanish attack the Royal Incus  no Spanish were killed  what causes the balance in power? And why do the Europeans that were the ones who were able to dominate the world  Jared believes that the answer to this is geographical endowment in each nation - History: the Spanish, a bunch of mercenaries, in search of gold  Francisco Pissarro conquered the Inca  a very successful European conquest - Diamond tracked the pattern of conquest  his work attempted to determine what differentiates between differently endowed region - First civilization appeared around the Fertile Crescent in Middle East  then spread to North Africa th - by 16 century, European livestock is dominated by livestock animals from the Fertile Crescent  they provided milk, leather, wool and importantly muscle power  none of these animal are native to the European  as a result, more people were able to be fed, so, civilization began - Inca’s productivity is limited to one’s g
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