July 10, 2013
Citations that show up in the body of the essay
o Ex. “*Students should study at home for five hours” (Smith 7).
Format: “*quotation*” (*last name* *page number*)*period*
Punctuation comes at the end
Except if there is a significant punctuation (“!” “?”) of the
o Ex. “Students should study at home for five hours!”
Still needs a period at the end of the “( )”
If we write the author’s name in the sentence, there is no need to
place their name in ( )
( ) would only have the page number in it
o Ex. Smith says that “students should study at home for
five hours” (7).
No author, no page number use website’s title Indirect quotation
When you are using a quotation that came from another source
o Best to quote from original source
Ex. “There is a wide range of competition in the retail industry” (Lee
qtd. In Smith 23)
Means smith quoted Lee
“Lee qtd in Smith” means Lees words that were quoted in
2 author citation : (Smith and Lee 7).
3 authors citation: (Smith, Lee and Bakes 7)