ENGL - 112 - Scholarly Style
Friday (Essay Introduction Due) - Should be Around a Page Long.
1. Your thesis statement.
2. A brief introduction to most important sources: names, types of
evidence used, etc. (introduce the sources you used the most to you
3. A brief outline of 2-3 of the major points you want to make.
4. The hallmarks of scholarly style discussed so far: conceptual
language, reporting expression, forecast, citation.
Scholarly Style: Conceptual Language, Citation, Reporting Statements.
"..............." is an example of a reporting statement
"..............." is an example of citation
Hallmarks of Scholarly Style
Nominalization (AW 180-194) - when simpler sentence structure are
turned into more complex sentence structures.
Scholarly style is a heavily nominal style. This means it prefers NOUNS
to VERBS, which results in long noun-phrases such as "non-specific
goal-strategy in problem-solving." Once nouns are preferred to verbs,
noun phrases carry information that would normally be spread out over
the rest of the sentence. Take the following simple examples:
(i) The noun-phrase absorbs a verb and an adjective:
This behaviour is criminal BECOMES criminal behaviour
(ii) The noun-phrase absorbs a predicate (verb and object)
Strategies are used to solve problems BECOMES problem-solving
This style allows the writer to absorb simple sentence-structures into
a noun-phrase and to leave the rest of the sentence free to carry other
information. This structure is incredibly flexible and can carry
tremendous amounts of information:
(iii) A recent comparative study of multi-family housing development
and maintenance costs bases on 1986 construction experience FINDS
This process crams a lot of sentences together.
Normalization thus increases the load of textual processing that the
academic reader has to perform. It is found throughout academic
How to spot it: To find something that was once a verb, but has turned
into a noun.
I is found through academic writing: (iv) Our study advances and tests a model incorporating both
institutional and resource explanations for why firms adopt certain
structural modifications, namely, issues managements structures. The
study provides a model to account for variation in the development is
issues management structures across firms.
In this example, nominalization turns a verb.action X MODIFIES Y into a
noun -modification- where it can take an attribute (that is, a
noun/adjective expressing a trait belonging to something)-
"structural"- that distinguishes it from other types of "modification"
(e.g. "genetic modification") The action is stabilized (locked into a
noun) and is worked into arrangements with other abstract nouns, such
as "institution" and "resources".
"Billy bullies Mary" --> BULLYING (the subject is lost)
gerund - when the present participle of a word is treated as a noun.
e.g. walking is a very and noun.
example (v) integrative, depend, erode.
Messages about the argument (AW 195-205)
1. Self Reference:
Academic writing also gives the reader messages about it argument by
referring to itself:
This paper is an attempt to redress...
This study explores the possible cognitive bases...
Over the following pages, this study will...
These examples call attention to the issue the writer is examining.
1a. Forecasts: (FOUND IN INTRODUCTION)
Forecasts and emphasis are special types of self-reference.
Academic writing often makes forecasts: statements about how the
argument will be organized and what the reader can expect:
e.g. First, I will summarize prior research indicating...Second, I will
briefly show that ne