ENGL 112 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Syllogism, Pathos, Cruelty To Animals
by Anthony Zhou
This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
Audio recording started: 12:13 PM October 25, 2017
Appeal to Reason (Logos):
Use syllogisms to create claims
If X then Y
Ex. If it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck; it's a duck
Ex. It looks and quacks like a duck
Ex. Then it must be a duck
Major premise false, unsound argument since logic is invalid. Therefore it is an invalid syllogism.
Invalid syllogism: If X then Y; Y; then X
Pick the best evidence to support your premises/claims. The more evidence, the stronger your argument
Hypothetical example (Fictional stories)
Personal example (Anecdotal)
Expert opinion or quantitative evidence
Expert opinion drawn from quantitative evidence
From weakest to strongest:
Sell your sources. Describe who/where/what/when/why if possible.
No information about source
Ex. Carl Sierra argues that young offenders often end up in a life of crime.
Only credentials are given
Ex. Carl Sierra, Professor of Criminology at Harvard University, argues that young offenders often end up in a life of crime.
Credentials, method, and claim given
Ex. Carl Sierra (2001), Prof of Criminology at Harvard University, concludes from a "thirty year study of 123 young offenders " that
there is a correlation between age and crime.
How you utilize your sources in your claims is important
Quantitative values are more persuasive when used in argumentative writing!
However, in certain fields, such as literature, the best evidence you can get is a word description from scholar
Appeal to Character (Ethos):
Establish common ground between author and reader/audience
First sentence is concession, but uses "you" instead of "we" - alienation
Raising taxes may be an unpopular idea, but please keep in mind these taxes provide essential services you enjoy here in Cana da
Much better by providing specific examples and last sentence appeals to patriotism but can be improved still
Raising taxes may be an unpopular idea, but these taxes provide computers for classrooms, contribute to universal health care ,
and help maintain museums and art galleries that make our quality of life the envy of most other nations in the world.
Make minor concessions
Master your subject matter before you appeal
Use humour (Comedic, non-offensive, self-deprecating humour)
October 25, 2017
Engl 112 Page 1
You're Reading a Preview
Unlock to view full version