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Lecture 6

ENGL 112 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Syllogism, Pathos, Cruelty To Animals


Department
English
Course Code
ENGL 112
Professor
Paul Endo
Lecture
6

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Ethos
(Appeal t...
Audio recording started: 12:13 PM October 25, 2017
Appeal to Reason (Logos):
Use syllogisms to create claims
1.
If X then Y
Ex. If it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck; it's a duck
X
Ex. It looks and quacks like a duck
Minor premise
Then Y
Ex. Then it must be a duck
Conclusion
Syllogisms:
Major premise false, unsound argument since logic is invalid. Therefore it is an invalid syllogism.
Invalid syllogism: If X then Y; Y; then X
Pick the best evidence to support your premises/claims. The more evidence, the stronger your argument
2.
Hypothetical example (Fictional stories)
Personal example (Anecdotal)
Historical example
Expert opinion or quantitative evidence
Expert opinion drawn from quantitative evidence
From weakest to strongest:
Sell your sources. Describe who/where/what/when/why if possible.
3.
No information about source
Ex. Carl Sierra argues that young offenders often end up in a life of crime.
Only credentials are given
Ex. Carl Sierra, Professor of Criminology at Harvard University, argues that young offenders often end up in a life of crime.
Credentials, method, and claim given
Ex. Carl Sierra (2001), Prof of Criminology at Harvard University, concludes from a "thirty year study of 123 young offenders " that
there is a correlation between age and crime.
How you utilize your sources in your claims is important
Quantitative values are more persuasive when used in argumentative writing!
However, in certain fields, such as literature, the best evidence you can get is a word description from scholar
Appeal to Character (Ethos):
Establish common ground between author and reader/audience
1.
First sentence is concession, but uses "you" instead of "we" - alienation
Raising taxes may be an unpopular idea, but please keep in mind these taxes provide essential services you enjoy here in Cana da
Much better by providing specific examples and last sentence appeals to patriotism but can be improved still
Raising taxes may be an unpopular idea, but these taxes provide computers for classrooms, contribute to universal health care ,
and help maintain museums and art galleries that make our quality of life the envy of most other nations in the world.
Ex.
Make minor concessions
2.
Master your subject matter before you appeal
3.
Use humour (Comedic, non-offensive, self-deprecating humour)
4.
Three Appeals
October 25, 2017
12:13 PM
Engl 112 Page 1
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