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Lecture Template - Ch. 2 (2 of 2).doc

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Family Studies
FMST 210
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Chapter 2 2 of 2B Cognitive Theories 1 Piaget 2 Vygotsky and 3 Information Processing 1 Piagets CognitiveDevelopmental Theory concepts in boldPiaget was interested in discovering how our minds worked cognitive development In particular he was interested in discovering how humans logically reason from infancy to adolescence Piaget believed that maturation or age set the parameters for what was possible in terms of logical thinking nature However he also believed that other factors beyond maturation or nature influenced our cognitive development a How do our everyday experiencesinteractions influence our cognitive developmentPiaget stated that humans sort information acquired from everyday experiencesinteractions into mental schemas According to Piaget our minds consist of an infinite number of schemas which guide how we perceive interpret explore and understand the experiencesinteractions we encounter Finally Piaget stated that information we acqure from our everyday experiencesinteractions can either be assimilated or accommodated Contrasting the two mechanisms that result in schematic growthAssimilation is the easiest method because it does not require a great deal of mental or schematic adjustment When we assimilate information the information is simply incorporated into an existing schema Sometimes when we assimilate information we tend to modify the information so that it fits our preexisting schema ie so that the information is congruent with our preexisting knowledge expectations andor beliefsAccommodation is the more effortful and adaptive method of mentally dealing with information as existing schemas or knowledge expectations andor beliefs are revised altered or grouped in new ways For instance information may cause us to realize how inadequate an existing schema is which in turn causes us to reorganize the schema by splitting it into two schemas one for each concept or unique idea Alternatively we might correct an existing misconception and revisedelete some information we previously assimilated in our existing schema replace a less sophisticated understanding of why correlation doesnt equal causation with a more sophisticated understandingIn both assimilation and accommodation we are adding new information to our existing schemas The defining difference has to do with what is being modifiedIn assimilation the information is modified to fit preexisting schemas In accommodation the schema is modified and this modification reflects an appropriate adaptation to the informationExample of Assimilation and AccommodationConfirmation bias Disconfirmation biasignore information that doesnt fit our existing beliefscomes from social psychologyEducationconceptual change provokewants concept to change 5
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