Chapter 5: attachment theory and research (1 of 2) Provide physical contact (close proximity): skin-to-skin touch, face to face. Secure base from which the calf can play/explore (faith that you will be there for them so that they would explore and play) Safe haven: place to return in imes of stress for reassurance o. What are some of the efects of maternal separaion/loss on the young elephants. Inability to be accepted by a herd/peers o. Similar - there is a consistent patern of emoional reacions when separated from care givers. Protest - crying, acively searching, show resistance to others" soothing eforts. Despair - a state of passivity, obvious sadness. Detachment - defensive disregard for an avoidance of caregiver (withdrawal; afecionless) Elephants have a more criical or shorter period for re- atachment (48 hours) For humans 2 years period without being atached to anyone is sill not too late. Role of male elephants vs. role of male humans.