Changing aspects of briish involvement: the loss of company monopoly(1813, subjected to criicism, the increasing role of the briish state. The search for uniied sovereignty in the early 19th c. Territorial expansion: inheritance pracices and lapsed states"(east india company claimed legiimate control if there was no heir, the fortunes of war. Technologies of empires: the railroad, the telegraph and submarine cable(1865, steam powered ocean travel, a postal system(penny post,1854) The indian muiny/ the irst war of indian independence. Triggers: animal grease and bullets, the military revolt, the revolt widens: Uncoordinated, stronger in north, a mass movement in oudh. Broader causes: cultural policies, land assessments, degradaion of landed elites, imperial hierarchy/lack of consultaive structure in governance. 1/3 of indians under indirect rule" unil independence. Outcomes: setlements: colonial ciies: metaphors of the raj. Shaped by fear and racial ideologies: making setler space. Grids and modern services typify briish secions of ciies.