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Geography 122 Class notes

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University of British Columbia
GEOG 122
Trevor Barnes

GEOGRAPHY 122 MODERNITYGLOBALIZATION IIClass 2 Three key words modernisation globalisation human geographyModernisationDef an interlocking set of social economic political and cultural processes and relationships associated w the ththEuropean view of a modern society developing from the 17 century until the mid 20 century it was widely regarded as a global norm to which all states would advance o Takes a whole way of life into account attitudes institutions lifestyle o Centred in Europe EurocentricEurocentric o Implication regarded as most advanced exemplification of modernization o More Europeanmore advanced more civilized o Created a privileged core and a lesser one colonies th1 Basic package european enlightenment of the 18 century o Reason over tradition being rational set aside the other ways of being and knowing traditional knowledges were set aside as less rational o Improvement the goal belief in human progress achieved through science and tech o Secularism and separate spheres of the market gouvt religion o Traditional societies seen as unchanging no search for improvement 2 In gouvt from monarchy to eventual democracy o Peacefully or through revolution from cronyism to bureaucracy rational administration o Expansion of citizenship rights a peoples right to selfdetermination leading to the nation state and th20 century achievement of the welfare sys o Cost of welfare state high so debt in Canada started occurring o Nation state people have a right for self determination and to be a nation 3 In economic organisation o Power of the market the 19C industrial revolution division of labour factory system mass production urbanisation Mass distribution and creation of a mass market brings down cost and price o Transportation channels had to be improved canals etco Regional and international trade aided by colonialism the expansion of Europe overseas o 1930s Keynesian gouvt interventions mixed economy private publicgouvt o 1980s neoliberalism the market knows best free trade maximize role of private sector 4 Modernisation as a cold war strategy of the west o walt rostows 5 stages of Economic growth a noncommunist manifestoo 1 Traditional society o 2 Preconditions for takeoff o 3 Take off o 4 Drive to maturity o 5 Age of high massconsumptions o Criticisms isolated to the European view of growth framed as beneficial easy and painless o Modernity the historic era of the modern o Modernism the culture and art of the modern 5 Criticisms a Progress b Democracy c Rising standards of living d Dysfunctional societies e Abuse of natureGlobalisationBroad version significant incrorganization of flows of ideas goods capital peoplepower across national borders leading to greater global integration of economics politics and cultures GEOGRAPHY 122 MODERNITYGLOBALIZATION IIo Effects of cheaper and faster transport and IT o Transnational organizationsintegrated flowsNAFTA north American free trade agreementEuropean union o Nation state political geographical cultural ethnic entity political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a country as a sovereign territorial unit o Geographic issue of scale need to sort out globallocal relationsNational Continental Provincial Diff processes operate at diff scalesNarrower version current phase of economic modernisation as market principles extend throughout the world aided by a neoliberal philosophy that urges the efficiency and benefits of competitive and largely unregulated marketsHuman geographySocietynature relationships peopleplaces eg Lectures 1819Spatial patterns map distributions and flow of people commodities etc throughout the courseThe experience of place or the meaning of place perceptions and experiences of place eg Lectures 24 33Regional studies territory unified by certain themes eg Part VIIClass 3 A global arena cold war geopolitics and after19451990 when the soviet empire deconstructed3 worlds USwestern Europe soviet unioncommunist countriesChina rest of the world developing worldPeriod of ideological differences GeopoliticsInternational political and strategic significance of geographythat is the location size resources and power of regions and nations o geo is the most fundamental factor in the foreign policy of states bc its the most permanent o Geo has more staying power than the coming and going of leadersDevelopment of geopolitical thinkingHalford Mackindero 1904 Looking at the globe the pivot area is where the seaman cant gain access Russian empire area frozen coast time much of the year limited access hundreds of miles of wilderness to reach the area so landman are no more able to reach it o 1919 View of significance of Eurasian heartland can only be reached by eastern Europe controlling the gatewaywho rules eastern Europe commands the heartland who rules the heartland commands the World Islandwho rules the world island commands the worldIn 1919 the communists were in control of the heartland o Air power new projection of the world based on the north pole in terms of air power USSR and US are quite close together and air power could penetrate into both of their territoriesold Mackinder way of thinking became obsolete o DEW line distant early warning radar installations about Russian attacks part of the mobilization of Canadas interest in the north o Shatterbelts saul cohenAs the heartland influence and power pushed out tensions developedMiddle east shatterbelt south east Asian shatterbelt European shatterbelt GEOGRAPHY 122 MODERNITYGLOBALIZATION IIo Ongoing view the heartland continues to affect USA strategists and leaders any dominance in the heartland would threaten the USs basic national security interestsSpatial containment of USSRo Fear of domino theory Cold warOutward domino affect of communist thinking moving and expanding influence from USSR to china to Vietnam to Australia to Hawaiiwestward o Conflict commonly happens in shatterbelt areasUS military used politically in shatterbelt areascuba carribeaninvolved everywhere naval forceSoviet military used most in the European shatterbelt more limitedlike a land force o USA highest proportion of global exports in the 1960s japan is incr west Germany incr and us decr o 1990s after collapse of soviet union usa re emerged as a leading economic and political powerResponse 1980s late to 2000s America first policy o Olympics in la in 1984 free enterprise o War on terror cost is ridiculous runs well over 100 billion dollars in one year o Unilaterism under Bush middle east shatterbelt o Role of RTA NAFTA economic repositioning access to canadian and mexica oil and gas cheap labour2009 2 trillion dollars in debt for the US o US over reach 46 of world military spending in 2006 o National debt 9 trillion by 2007 o Debt has been growing since the beginning of the war on terror o China has been buying huge amounts of US debt o Olympics 2008 China is a new power greatest power o Around 2027 chinese economy will exceed the US economy o China developing military power to be comparable to economic powerClass 4 GlobalLocal geopolitics in the horn of africa Timeline summary The horn of Africa Colonial periodnothingSomalia Ethiopia Djibouti Eritrea precarious gouvt in Somalia 1960 greater Somalia formed ussr berbera supported by the West and the UN governing only a tiny portion of the Ethiopia Prowestern territory 1974 coup by Marxists eth hostile to US somussr pair up socialist even if somUSo the worlds most utterly failed statethe Economist 2008 1977 Ogaden war border war ethsomExpect the superpowers USSRUS to have it their own way since 1977 Musical chairs US berbera this is a weakimpoverished area 1980s Drought deathThere have been many power plays by outside interests from the 1991 Ethiopia gouvt falls 1991 Somali gouvt falls colonial period to the Cold War 1993civil warsdrought in EthiopiaIts instructive in the merging of geographical scales as global 2004 Som President elected by Kenyanssuperpowers engage local conditions2005 Mass killings electionsCold War super powers do not always prevail 2006 eth troops in Som islwarlords out 2007 AlQaeda hate ethi return of warlordsReminds us of global interdependence Why are there over 100000 2008pirates millions localglobal Somalis in Canada1 Colonial periodEthiopia was never colonized despite its significant geopolitical locationPoor with few resources coastal desert and interior highlands of Ethiopia periodic severe drought o at the head of the Red Sea route to Europe narrowing in the straight Aden small british colony with port to monitor naval presence o close to the oilrich Arabian peninsula
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