GEOG 122 Lecture Notes - Ogaden War, Greater Somalia, Musical Chairs

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29 Sep 2011

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Class 2: Three key words: modernisation, globalisation, human geography
Def: an interlocking set of social, economic, political and cultural processes and relationships associated w/ the
European view of a modern society developing from the 17th century, until the mid 20th century it was widely
regarded as a global norm to which all states would advance.
o Takes a whole way of life into account (attitudes, institutions; lifestyle)
o Centred in Europe (Eurocentric)
o Implication: regarded as most advanced exemplification of modernization
o More European more advanced (more civilized)
o Created a privileged core (and a lesser one: colonies)
1. Basic package: european enlightenment of the 18th century
o Reason over tradition (being rational, set aside the other ways of being and knowing, traditional
knowledges were set aside as less rational)
o ‘Improvement’ the goal; belief in human progress; achieved through science and tech
o Secularism and separate spheres of the market, gouv’t, religion
o Traditional societies: seen as unchanging, no search for improvement
2. In gouv’t: from monarchy to (eventual) democracy
o Peacefully or through revolution; from cronyism to bureaucracy (rational administration)
o Expansion of citizenship rights: a people’s right to self-determination leading to the nation state, and
20th century achievement of the welfare sys
o Cost of welfare state: high so debt in Canada started occurring
o Nation state: people have a right for self determination and to be a nation
3. In economic organisation
o Power of the market: the 19C industrial revolution, division of labour, factory system, mass production,
urbanisation. Mass distribution and creation of a mass market (brings down cost and price)
o Transportation channels had to be improved; canals etc.
o Regional and international trade, aided by colonialism the expansion of Europe overseas
o 1930s Keynesian gouv’t interventions: mixed economy: private, public & gouv’t
o 1980s neo-liberalism: the market knows best: free trade, maximize role of private sector
4. Modernisation as a cold war strategy of the west
o walt rostow’s 5 stages of Economic growth: a non-communist manifesto
o 1. Traditional society
o 2. Preconditions for take-off
o 3. Take off
o 4. Drive to maturity
o 5. Age of high mass-consumptions
o Criticisms: isolated to the European view of growth, framed as beneficial, easy and painless
o Modernity: the historic era of the modern
o Modernism: the culture and art of the modern
5. Criticisms:
a. Progress?
b. Democracy?
c. Rising standards of living?
d. Dysfunctional societies?
e. Abuse of nature
Broad version: significant incr & organization of flows of ideas, goods, capital, people & power across national
borders, leading to greater global integration of economics, politics and cultures
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o Effects of cheaper and faster transport and IT
o Transnational organizations & integrated flows
NAFTA: north American free trade agreement
European union
o Nation state: political, geographical, cultural, ethnic entity, political legitimacy from serving as a
sovereign entity for a country as a sovereign territorial unit
o Geographic issue of scale: need to sort out global-local relations
National? Continental? Provincial?
Diff processes operate at diff scales
Narrower version: current phase of economic modernisation, as market principles extend throughout the world
aided by a neo-liberal philosophy that urges the efficiency and benefits of competitive and largely unregulated
Human geography
Society-nature relationships: people + places (eg. Lectures 18,19)
Spatial patterns: map distributions and flow of people, commodities etc. (throughout the course)
The experience of place or the meaning of place (perceptions and experiences of place) (eg. Lectures 24, 33)
Regional studies (territory unified by certain themes) (eg Part VII)
Class 3: A global arena: cold war geopolitics and after
1945-1990 when the soviet empire deconstructed
3 worlds: US & western Europe, soviet union & communist countries & ~China, rest of the world (developing
Period of ideological differences
International political and strategic significance of geographythat is, the location, size, resources and power of
regions and nations
o “geo is the most fundamental factor in the foreign policy of states b/c it’s the most permanent”
o Geo has more staying power than the coming and going of leaders
Development of geo-political thinking
Halford Mackinder:
o 1904: Looking at the globe, the ‘pivot area’ is where the seaman can’t gain access (Russian empire area),
frozen coast time much of the year, limited access, hundreds of miles of wilderness to reach the area so
landman are no more able to reach it
o 1919: View of significance of Eurasian heartland, can only be reached by eastern Europe… controlling
the gateway
‘who rules eastern Europe commands the heartland; who rules the heartland commands the
World Island; who rules the world island commands the world’
In 1919, the communists were in control of the heartland
o Air power: new projection of the world based on the north pole; in terms of air power, USSR and US are
quite close together and air power could penetrate into both of their territories old Mackinder way of
thinking became obsolete
o DEW line: distant early warning; radar installations about Russian attacks; part of the mobilization of
Canada’s interest in the north
o Shatterbelts: saul cohen
As the heartland influence and power pushed out; tensions developed
Middle east shatterbelt, south east Asian shatterbelt, European shatterbelt
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o Ongoing view: the heartland continues to affect USA strategists and leaders (any dominance in the
heartland would threaten the US’s basic national security interests)
Spatial containment of USSR
o Fear of domino theory (Cold war)
Outward domino affect of communist thinking moving and expanding influence (from USSR to
china, to Vietnam to Australia to Hawaii westward)
o Conflict commonly happens in shatterbelt areas
US military used politically in shatterbelt areas + cuba (carribean) = involved everywhere (naval
Soviet military used most in the European shatterbelt (more limited…like a land force)
o USA: highest proportion of global exports in the 1960s… japan is incr, west Germany incr and us decr
o 1990s: after collapse of soviet union usa re emerged as a leading economic and political power
Response 1980s late to 2000s, America first policy
o Olympics in la in 1984: free enterprise
o War on terror: cost is ridiculous; runs well over 100 billion dollars in one year
o Unilaterism under Bush; middle east shatterbelt
o Role of RTA, NAFTA, economic repositioning, access to canadian and mexica oil and gas, cheap labour
2009: 2 trillion dollars in debt for the US
o US over reach 46% of world military spending in 2006
o National debt $9 trillion by 2007
o Debt has been growing since the beginning of the war on terror
o China has been buying huge amounts of US debt
o Olympics 2008: China is a new power, greatest power?
o Around 2027; chinese economy will exceed the US economy
o China developing military power to be comparable to economic power
Class 4: Global/Local: geopolitics in the horn of africa
The horn of Africa
Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea: precarious gouv’t in Somalia
supported by the West and the UN governing only a tiny portion of the
o ‘the world’s most utterly failed state’ – the Economist 2008
Expect the superpowers (USSR & US) to have it their own way (since
this is a weak/impoverished area)
There have been many power plays by outside interests from the
colonial period to the Cold War
Its instructive in the merging of geographical scales as global
superpowers engage local conditions.
Cold War (super) powers do not always prevail.
Reminds us of global interdependence. Why are there over 100,000
Somalis in Canada?
1. Colonial period
Ethiopia was never colonized despite its significant geopolitical location
Poor with few resources; coastal desert and interior highlands of Ethiopia, periodic severe drought
o at the head of the Red Sea route to Europe (narrowing in the straight; Aden (small british colony with
port to monitor; naval presence)
o close to the oil-rich Arabian peninsula
Timeline summary
Colonial periodnothing
1960: greater Somalia formed (ussr berbera)
Ethiopia Pro-western
1974: coup by Marxists, eth hostile to US
(som&ussr pair up socialist even if som=US)
1977: Ogaden war (border war eth&som)
1977: Musical chairs (US berbera)
1980s: Drought, death
1991: Ethiopia gouv’t falls
1991: Somali gouv’t falls
1993+ : civil wars & drought in Ethiopia
2004: Som President elected by Kenyans
2005: Mass killings (elections)
2006: eth troops in Som (isl/warlords out)
2007: Al-Qaeda, hate ethi, return of warlords
2008+ : pirates (millions), local global
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