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HIST 102 Class Notes.doc

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University of British Columbia
HIST 102
Christopher Friedrichs

HIST 102 Class Notes General Overview -readings need to be done by the tutorial, not class [email protected] Sept 14th Before 1500 -for tutorial need to read: XX-XXV of textbook, then Chinese Court Records and Marco Polos book -what does each source say about the other culture with regard to: government, economic activity, religion, social custom -how accurate do they seem to be? -similarities? -differences? -what year are we in? 2010 -is European notion of time -every culture has a distinct starting point, some monumentous event, from which they begin counting, by my notion it is 2010 AD or CE -Hebrew Calendar 5571, Muslim 1431 AH, Indian Vikram Samwat Calendar 2067, Roman Calendar 2753, French Revolutionary 218 -Hebrew Calendar begins from creation of the earth according to old testament -Muslim calendar begins from when Mohammed fled Mecca for Medina -Vikram Samwat based on victory of emperor Vikram -Roman Calendar calculated from the founding of the city of Rome -French Revolutionary calculated from establishment of the French Republic -Christian Calendar calculated from approximately when Jesus was born, not positive of the date but most likely -Common era came into existence because of cultural dominance of Europeans -BC (before Christ) = BCE (before common era) -AD (Anno Domini year of our lord) = CE (common era) Chinese Transliteration -Wade-Giles system, in place until 1980s when it was replaced by -Pinyin system created by Chinese government Culture -a series of rules and traditions that regulates the lives of the inhabitants and provides them with ways to understand the world and their role within it Civilization -used for complex culture that extend over larger area and provide a large number of people with a common system of rules and traditions -normally have constant features that are passed down centuries -a reason for this is that civilizations have a system of record keeping Civilization v Culture -Vasco de Gama visited a tribe along the coast of Africa (culture) and then visited southern India where they contacted a civilization State -a political unit that is completely or largely independent from any other political unit, providing a unified system of government and set of rules that regulate their lives and attempts to defend its inhabitants from others Monarchies and Republics -monarchy is a state in which supreme authority is held, or said to be held, by a single person, and who will pass on this power hereditarily upon their death -republic is a system in which supreme authority is held by one or more temporary rulers who are chosen by certain inhabitants of the state -democracy is a system in which the right to choose the ruler and the right to tell the monarch or ruler must do is held by a very large number of people -republic or monarchy can be democratic or not Empires -types: -very large state with a monarch -federation of monarchies -in which various monarchs are forced to accept the dominance of the emperor, though he has allowed them to keep title and position -land-based empires -maritime empires -both of these last two are vast expanses of territory brought under the control of a single state -forms of ruling -tributary: system in which one state or region is conquered/coerced but are allowed to largely run their own affairs with at least two conditions: respect higher authority of the empire and pay tribute (money, slaves, soldiers etc) -administered: system in which the emperor or dominant state directly governs other parts of the empire by sending officials to rule in accordance with his wishes Economic Empire: is an empire in which a state, by military force or sheer economic power, can force other states to trade with them, often advantageously to the dominant state -ex. Phoenician, Carthage (sort of), American? Some Important Empires before 1500 Athenian -Greece had common civilization but many different states -Maritime Empire, economic features, many states paid tribute to Athens Alexanders -huge fuckin Empire, established by military conquest Roman -first a monarch, then a senate, then an emperor (monarchy) -mix of administrative and tributary form Byzantine -Eastern part of Roman Empire at the break of the two -had emperors until 453 when the last emperor was overthrown and became part of the Ottoman empire Holy Roman -collection of monarchs that accepted the rule of a monarch above them -system by which various kings and dukes elected a new emperor every time the old emperor died -semi-independent states with a single head Mongol -largest land-based empire of all time -founded by Genghis Khan -was tributary empires -monarchy, led by Genghiss descendents Kublai Khan -conquered China -did not alter existing system, simply placed himself I charge of it Sept 16th - Religion -largest society in world was China in 1600 -mostly Confucian -same effect on society as Islam in mid-East, Christianity in Europe -some debate over whether or not Confucianism should be considered a religion -many temples devoted to worship of local gods, not accepted as part of Confucian system of belief, but not outright outlawed either Religion in the World in 1500 -450 million people in world in 1500 -Major Religions in Rough Order of Adherents -Confucianims: China; parts of Sai -Chrstianity: Europe (and other tiny groups spread over the planet) -Hinduism: India; southeast Asia -Islam: Middle East, North Africa, Northern India, central Asai -Buddhism: India, east Asia, etc -Daoism: China -Judaism: Europe; Mediterranean -Jainism: India -often considered as an off-shoot of Hinduism, something that Jainists would not like at all -Aztec State Religion: Mexico -Inca State Religion: Peru -Shinto: Japan -and plenty of others -most of these however had major internal differences, often as much as between one another -ex. Christianity had two completely different sects at the time (Catholic, Orthodox) and 70 years later the Catholic would splinter even further -Christianity and Islam were strongly encouraged to spread their beliefs, a part of their religious ideology -Buddhism had some elements of this as well, though nowhere near to the same level -Confucianism was not actively encouraged to spread, but had dominance in largest civ. at the time so there was not regarded as any need to convert others Key Characteristics of Religions or Belief Systems -Deity -None? Monotheism? Polytheism? -some Polytheistic religions would argue that in effect all the Gods are simply aspects of manifestations of a single one -Concept of Deity -Personal? Impersonal (Heaven)? -does the God have personhood in that it has a relationship to people? Can you pray to him/her/it and they will understand you (Christianity) or is God more of an abstract state of being (Nirvana in Buddhism) -Source of Beliefs -Divine revelation? Human meditation? -a religion is often established at a very specific time b/c a person gained an understanding of the divine of which they were previously unaware (Divine revelation), for example God revealing to Abraham or Moses in Judaism, for Islam Muhammad was told by God certain universal truths -Christianity is an odd version of divine revelation, Jesus did not found the religion, it was his followers who interpreted His truths that can be called the founders through divine revelation -other religions feel that God did not reveal a truth to a person but instead a person gained understanding through meditation and reflection, Buddhism is an example of this -Concept of Soul -One life on earth? Many lives? (reincarnation) -distinction between body and soul is a fairly common idea throughout most religions, the body dies but the soul lives on -pantheistic systems -a system in which there is a belief that all of what there is in nature is somehow an expression of divinity -ie. everything is God, all of nature is God -neither monotheism or polytheism -transition from sect to religion -first century CE, Christians were a sect of Judaism
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