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Lecture 2

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HIST 103
Jeffrey Byrne

Nurul Hanisah Kamarul Zaman Week 2 18499129 Cold War: European Countries as the Balance of Power With the fall of the German Empire, the subsequent race for power was the Cold War that emerged in 1956.According to the observations made by George Kennan, the United States’ (US) ambassador to Moscow and Novikov, a Soviet Union’s ambassador to Washington, the Cold War is primarily a battle of the ideologies between Capitalism and Communism (Kennan and Novikov). In relation to this, the European countries were divided into two sides namely pro- Western and pro-Soviet. By understanding the Cold War era, it can be observed that the European countries played a major role as the balance of power between the two ideologies. As suggested by the name Cold War, no war occurred during this period. However, the European countries played active roles in supporting the ideologies that they believed through their implementation of internal and external policies. For example, through their external policies, the Communist allies which consisted of the European countries in the Eastern Germany began to adopt “Soviet political and economic models” while the Capitalist allies which consisted of France, Belgium, Greece and Italy began to establish “Western-style parliamentary system and capitalist economic structures” (Keylor 194). On the other hand, through their implementation of external policies, the pro-Soviet supported the Warsaw Pact whereby they agree to support the Soviet’s military plan.As for the pro-Western, they supported the US in its intervention of foreign affairs such as by supporting the vision of the United Nations and signing the NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The success of preventing another war from breaking out during the Cold War era is largely factored by the European countries’roles as the balance of power between the two ideologies in the 1950s. Nurul Hanisah Kamarul Zaman Week 2 18499129 For instance, the Capitalist allies played their role by supporting the US in its intervention in foreign affairs such as supporting the vision of the United Nations and signing the NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). As for the Communist allies, they played their roles by supporting the Warsaw Pact and this is mainly done by lending their army strength when requested. In a similar manner, allies from both sides maintained a moderate attitude by allowing the political activities of the ideologies they despised to take place (Keylor 194). Nevertheless, the Soviet Union’s insecurity was obvious from its reluctance to demobilize its forces even after the fall of the German empire. While the US demobilized its forces reducing the total strength to only 1.4 million, the Soviet kept more than 4 million soldiers after the German defeat (Keylor 195). 1) What role did Europeans play in creating the Cold War? - they led towards a diverging continent  mostly, their division is based on ideological differences: Communism and Capitalism  each of them became allies to either ideology (quote textbook)  no wars actually broke but it was obvious that the Sovie
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