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Lecture 2

Week 2 Reading HIST 103.docx

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HIST 103
Jeffrey Byrne

Triple Entente: Russia, Britain, France Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Week 2 Reading HIST 103 Prologue The Emergence of the United States - Unlike Japan that doesn’t have: 1) arable land, natural resources, and large internal market for its industrial output, the US was underpopulated.  Thus, it is necessary for them to import millions of immigrants to operate its farms and factories - But, in similarity, both US and Japan:  Free from threats of foreign invasion – they are located far from the European continents  Both were located in the vicinity of politically disorganized and militarily weak states whose abundant natural resources made them tempting targets for economic exploitation and military domination  but they were lucky because of the geographical factor Developments in the Americas - Simon Bolivar: dreamed of creating a political federation of Latin America - But the development is flawed because: 1) they focus on the primary sector development and becoming producers for other developing Western Europe, 2) the continual of the feudal practice (which leaves a social evidence of a socially stratified society) - A Revolution in Columbia  US supported this revolution. It succeeded an became an independent republic  The catch: the new nation signed a treaty authorizing the US to construct an 80-km canal  The catch: steps had been taken to ensure the right of the US to protect its strategic and economic interests in Caribbean  The catch: in 1904, Theodore Roosevelt claimed the right to manage the internal affairs  Roosevelt Corollary  Panama Canal: opened in the very first month when WWI erupted. Also, the States gained a total control of the Caribbean region. Direct involvement from the States was resented by the Caribbean and it’s called Colossus of the North Technology and the Geopolitical World View - Western power dominations were made possible by: 1) Ocean-steam-powered transportation (Steam ship)  Powered by coal and triggered the Western to acquire sufficient supply of coal Triple Entente: Russia, Britain, France Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy  Enabled big powers to be benefited economically and military power improved 2) Land-stem-powered transportation (Train)  Also enabled a more effective political and economic control  Allowed to penetrate the interior of Africa from the coastal footholds 3) Telegraph  Allows long-distance communications to take place  Instructions and requests for information were obtained more easily - Ultimately:  The technologies allowed military force to be used more efficiently and more effectively - Geopolitics biasness – they attempt to justify the political motivations by their own countries The Development of an International Economy - Economic activity can only progress if: 1) Labour and capital have the liberty to emigrate 2) Goods had to have easy access to the markets of the world - Impediments to the free movement of workers (seeking jobs), capital (seeking high returns on investment), and exports (seeking markets): 1) Political constraints 2) Technological deficiencies in transportation inherited from the preindustrial era 3) Tariffs, import quotas, subsidies for domestic industries, and restrictive shipping regulations inhibited the free exchange of products across national frontiers 4) The absence of smoothly functioning international monetary system discouraged short-term financing of trade and long-term investment in productive enterprises abroad 5) The lack of cheap, reliable transportation limited the international migration of labor in search of employment - Between 1860 – 1920: a huge more than 45 million European left Europe to find a better life. Half was received by the States - Growth of world trade was possible due to the drastic reduction of protective duties on agricultural imports to Britain (Corn Laws). Eventually, other European countries began to moderate their protective policies and as the results: 1) Increase in the total volume of international commerce to unprecedented levels Triple Entente: Russia, Britain, France Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy 2) Stimulated product specialization  provided an insight into the importance of product specialization by basing on the “domestic factor endowment” - Increasing reliance on foreign trade became an important aspect of modern economic world Week 2 KEYWORDS - Scramble for Africa  Affected by the Western’s technological advancement  Circa 1875: Africa was dominated by European colonization such as during the Franco-Prussian War, Germany expansion after being shut out from the States by Monroe Doctrine, France dreaming to conquer from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, and Italy with Tripoli and Abyssinia  After the Berlin Conference, the European powers divided the African territory among themselves. - Berlin Conference, Nov. 1884 - Feb. 1885  A negotiation between big powers  “ this gathering of representatives of the principal colonial powers set down ground rules for the European conquest of Africa, permitting each power to take its shares so as to prevent the development of competing claims that might provoke war.”  Result: 1) bilateral arrangements reached between France and England regarding territorial disputes in North Africa, and 2) England and Russia in Southern Asia  This objective of not causing violence to each other remains until Summer 1914  there was a conflict of a national interest between Russia and Austria-Hungary  International cooperation is necessary to maintain the European power balance • Opinion: big powers can work together to achieve mutual benefits • Opinion: As a result, continental division (as in how it is divided culturally, linguistically may differ) - Meiji Restoration (The Rise of Japanese Power in East Asia)  Begin in Jan 1868, it is significant due to Japan’s rise to world power  Change in political system: from decentralized oligarchy feudal to emperor as the symbol of unity and centralized authority  Change from a primitive feudal society into a modern world power  But most importantly, they change their model by imitating the European model. This was achieved by sending Japanese observers to France, Germany and England  The success of the restoration is due to: the Japanese leaders’ willingness to abandon their “isolationist prejudice” in favor of Western politic, economic, and military methods.  The Japanese used a strategy of innovating by imitation  Due to its modernization, Japan managed to surpass textile production by China  the mechanization of cotton spinning  foreign trade increased from nothing to 200 million Triple Entente: Russia, Britain, France Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy  But, economic growth is limited by: 1) geographical factor, 2) rapid population expansion  this led to a belief that colonization is necessary to ensure that the Japanese can accommodate all population  So, colonization began with annexing the areas nearby such as: island of Taiwan, Korea  led to a conflict with the Russian. Result: The Japanese won the Russo- Japanese War (in 1905)  led to other non-Western countries being inspired to liberate their countries from colonization  In a later part, Russia’s defeat influenced it to make itself as a British ally together with France in 1907. • Opinion: Meiji Restoration is significant because it marks the period
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