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HIST 103
Jeffrey Byrne

Key terms Nuremberg Laws, 1935 - anti-semitic laws in Germany - Nazism became an ideology - sought to exterminate/discriminate the Jews  prohibit relationship between an Aryan and non- Aryan Lebensraum - German territorial expansion  an important component of Nazi ideology  German was facing the problem of overpopulation  it’s necessary to displace other inferior people for the benefit of the Aryan - this place was mentioned in Week 11/12/13 – about Hitler’s failed military plan. Due to the weather or something The Führer principle - principal political authority is the Third Reich - Fuhrer’s word is above law - certain gifted individuals can rule on the basis of Social Darwinisim  explains the racial policy - a form of fascism Blackshirts - fascist paramilitary - equivalent to Nazi SS  under the direction of Musollini  became even more violent when the power of Musollini increases The March on Rome, October 1922 - a march by Italian dictator, Benito Musollini when he came to power Corporatism/Corporate state Il Duce - means the leader  in reference to Benito Musollini who managed to become the fascist leader The “stab in the back”! National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NAZI) Benito Mussolini (104 – 107) - At first opposed WWI but later support Italian involvement in the war - Founded a party: Fasci di Combattimento and later was invited by King Emmanuele to form a new government - An Italian Fascist dictator with a similar view with Hitler about?  possibly the Versailles Treaty since Musollini violated it - Italy was in perpetual conflict with France over naval and colonial matters in the Mediterranean - German: USSR and Eastern Europe expansion. So, Italy and Germany had no overlapping interests - Pg 127 - The Fascist Doctrine  Believes in violence  Fascism is the precise negation of Scientific or Marxian Socialism  Fascism believes in holiness and heroism  Fascism denies that the majority can govern by means of a periodical consultation  Fascism is a collectivist movement  The state structure of a Fascist state: 1) the State is an absolute before which individuals and groups are relative  as long as the individuals and groups are within a state, they are ‘thinkable’, 2) the state is the guarantor of internal and external security, but it is also the transmitter of the spirit of the people, 3) the state educates citizens for civic virtue by uniting/harmonizing them, 4) it is not a tyrannical State of the medieval lord, 5) it doesn’t suppress the individuals but they are multiplied, 5) has limited harmful liberties but preserved those that are essential, 6) only States make the decision Adolf Hitler (1889 – 1945) - Took power as a Chancellor in 1933 - Support German government spending for military purposes - While sending delegates to join the conference in Geneva, the German was already secretly working towards rearmament - Used the increase in government spending to tackle the economic depression which is similar to Roosevelt’s approach  except that for the German’s the purpose is to expand their military superiority in Europe - To tackle the overpopulation problem in Germany, he sought to annex territories in Eastern Europe and USSR  so, need Italy’s help - Withdrew Germany from League o Nations Weimar Republic (German Reich) - Superficial similarity between the immediate goals of Stresemann and Hitler Mein Kampf, 1925-26 - Hitler’s sketch on the German expansionism to West Europe Locarno Treaties, 1925 - Significant as among the early international peace commitment - Rhineland Pact  Not to attack each other: Germany, France, Belgium, the United Kingdom  Guarantors: United Kingdom and Italy. - Divided borders of Europe into 2 categories. Western protected by Locarno and Eastern by German and Poland sharing borders Saar/Saarland - After plebiscite in the Saar  It resulted in the return of the territory to the German Reich Anschluss, 1938 - A political unification of Austria and Germany - Italy’s source of anxiety: Austria used to possess a territory that was ceded during Paris Peace Conference Sudetenland / Munich Crisis 1938 - When German was expanding eastward in 1938 - Policy of aggression - To win over Poland  necessary to get Czech  as the result, enable the German’s expansion in Europe The Rome-Berlin Axis - Around 1936 when Hitler aimed to get Austria - Marked Musollini’s change in tactical strategy - Through this, Italy acknowledges German’s presence in Austria and whatever he wants in Southeastern Europe - Anti-Nazi sentiment in Austria - Advantages to Hitler: prevent Italy from objecting German’s plans in Austria and increase tension in Mediterranean between France and Britain - Outcome: Hitler was able to annex Austria The Anti-Comintern Pact - Established in 1936 - Against Communist - Includes Japan - Poland refused to join it Blitzkreig - Short, swift engagement with isolated opponents - Winning a war with a modest mobilization - Occurred around 1936 when the Germans were in desperate need for resources - This strategy was a short while attempt to achieve a larger purpose Guernica - Bombed buildings during the Spanish Civil War Spanish International B
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