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Week 12 Reading.docx

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HIST 103
Jeffrey Byrne

Week Twelve [Chapter 6, 184 – 189] [W12 TERMS] Stanley Baldwin, “the bomber always gets through” - describes Baldwin’s opinion that in order to end the war more quickly, more civillians should be killed  I think this is the strategy of draining one’s morality (pressure the civillians)  the one used by the Germans during the Battle of Britain but it backfired  this time, the Germans tried to clear the air region from Royal Air Force (RAF) - dilemma between rearmament and disarmament Battle of Britain, summer-autumn 1940. (German attack Britain) From Chapter 5, Week 11 - preparation for BoB was immediately done after the Battle of France - German’s Air Obstacle that is RAF which becomes the reason for the delay in the German attack:  Battle of Britain was mainly about gaining air superiority over RAF  Air Marshal Hermann assured Hitler that the precision bombing of British bases can be used to clear the sky from RAF  The advantages of RAF belongs to British that make it necessary to remove them: 1) qualitative superiority that helped to compensate for the numerical inferiority of the British air force, faster and more manoeuvrable and greater firepower for air fighter, 2) the technology of reflecting the echo of radio wave enables to detect distant object in the sky, 3) the development of an electrically operated cipher machine capable of decoding German radio messages - Counter-effect of round-the-clock bombardment:  The German attacked the major British metropolitan areas as a punishment  This attack was done to sap (drain) British morale and inciting civilian opposition to Churchil’s policy of resistance  an idea inspired by Giulio Douhet, an Italian general  who predicted that mass uprisings by the terrorized civilian victims would ensure their government’s capitulation (government surrenders) - Ultimately, the German Air Force (Lutwaffe) lost the Air Battle against the Britain (RAF)  impeded their mission during World War II  stalled the Operation Sea Lion  prevents Britain invasion - British refused an armistice with the Germans Aerial bombing vs. precision bombing debate Precision Bombing - to drain the enemy’s moral by bombing strategic economic area and draining public’s will to wage war by attacking enemy’s infrastructure  psychological warfare - create less casualties than Aerial Bombing - Aerial bombing  An indiscriminate method of bombing which has been a practice since 1940  Was done by the US in Dresden and Tokyo  Killed more people than it did during Hiroshima and Nagasaki’s bombing (nuclear bomb) B-29 bomber (or Superfortress) - primary aircraft during American firebombing campaign  against the Japanese - carried the atomic bombs which were dropped in Nagasaki (Fat Man) and Hiroshima (Little Boy) - atomic bomb: Little Boy and Fat Man - used during the firebombing attack in Japan in 1945 Curtis LeMay - belief: only total war can end the war in Pacific - role in war: significant role during WWII  advocate firebombing after the strategy of precision bombing doesn’t work - ordered troops to fly at a lower altitude to ensure that the target is hit Manhattan Project (Atomic Bomb Project) - brought to the development of nuclear bomb. Marks the inception of the Atomic Age. Cost $2Bil to develop - headed by Major Gen. Leslie R. Groves under the direction of Dr. Oppenheimer - this project has been kept as a secret. - during the day the bomb was launched, weather was not favorable, but they just proceed - it was a total gamble as they did not know whether or not it’s going to work, its impact - was used during the Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombings - the first explosion test was done in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Dated 16 July 1945  - involved 120K physicists, chemists, engineers which cooperated with Montreal Atomic Laboratory - collaboration between Britain, Canada and US: teamed by Canadian, British and European scientist - federal government worked to develop the method of extracting uranium Firebombing of Tokyo, March 1945 - a similar version of firebombing is in Dresden, Germany. Reported by Margaret Freyer. Dated: 13-14 Feb. 1945 - US and British attacked together in a separate interval of time. Tons of bomb were dropped - the rapid drop of bomb causes people to lack of oxygen - B-29 Bomber was used during the firebombing attack Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, August 1945 - US against Japan (US attacks) during Pacific campaigns - Context before bombing: the emperor foresaw that the Japanese was on the verge of losing. So, he wanted to surrender but not the general. The negotiation sees that Washington demanded an unconditional surrender : condition lies in the Postdam Declaration that Japan is to be stripped off its empire and occupied military until it had been transformed into a peaceful nation - marks the first ever of nuclear war and the only one. The nuclear bomb was developed in the large-scale Manhattan Project - 6 August 1945: Hiroshima that is Japan’s eight largest city was bombed - 3 days later: Na
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