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Week 13 Reading.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 103
Professor
Jeffrey Byrne
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 13 Reading Atlantic Charter, August 1941 - a meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt in Newfoundland (before WWII) to discuss about war aims and postwar settlements - this is driven by the spirit of Atlanticism: speak the same language, same shared culture. They are also envisioning a new world order - Content of the agreement: 1. The countries won’t annex other country 2. No annexation against the will of the people concerned 3. Respect the wish of the people who want to form their own government and see the force they used to possess deprived of them to be restored. 4. Each state has an equal access to trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity 5. Collaboration between all nations in the economic field 6. Hope to gain peace which give assurance to men that they have their freedom in life 7. Men can travel high seas and oceans without limit 8. All nations must abandon the use of force Inter-Allied Information Committee - a propaganda committee which helped to spread propaganda among the Allied nations.  This led towards the war of moral with propaganda being spread everywhere possible (radio and print) - this committee was created in the 1940s to spread propaganda against the opponents such as propaganda of the Allies against the Germans - this propaganda includes the manipulation of information to create confusion United Nations Declaration, January 1942 - The name United Nations was proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt - A declaration against the Axis - 2 discussion about creating the United Nations: 1) issue of human’s rights vs. state’s rights 2) believe in Wilson Principal (of not using military force to obtain the person’s need) but at the same time realized the need of using army as a backup if anything goes wrong - this declaration pledges to uphold the Atlantic Charter in 1941 - fight against the Germans and the Japanese Arsenal of Democracy - The US promise to help the British fight against the Nazi - But they help by not directly getting the US army involve. Instead, they sent military supplies, food, ships because they believe in democracy - This is called ‘arsenal’ because most of American industries helped to manufacture military supplies for the Britain  The Americans became the protector of democracy - helping the Allies against the Axis “Uncle Joe” - a propaganda to build Joseph Stalin’s image in the period between 1940 – 1945 by the British and the US  Stalin’s image was already bad with his large number of killing - Russian, father figure, propaganda with the blessing of US - aim: to make people feel more Russian - propaganda: similar to US’ propaganda against the Japanese - all of the adherence to Stalin’s demand was solely not wanting to risk the chance of winning against the Nazis Percentages Agreement, October 1944 - it occurred in Moscow between Churchill and Stalin. - about dividing territories between British and Russia in states such as Rumania, Greece, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia - Russia never accepted it and it was proposed by Churchill The Four Policemen (1944) - The Four Policemen (US, Britain, Soviet Union and China)  the 4 great powers  They maintain the order of the world by keeping peace in own region - Was introduced in 1945 as part of the post-war arrangement - China was absorbed reluctantly - This policy was resented by the smaller countries because it diminish the power of Security Council members - takes effect from the UN Declaration in 1942 - UN Charters on June 1945 – International Diplomatic Conference - Roosevelt saw the future for the “4 Policemen” (Britain, US, Russia, China) – China was absorbed reluctantly - signed by 50 states - was resented by the smaller countries because it diminishes the power of Security Council members (PEACE) Dumbarton Oaks Conference, August-October 1944 - post-war arrangement  discussed the possibility of establishing an organization that would maintain peace after WWII ends  One of the issues addressed: the issue of veto power in the Security Council - sought to establish an international cooperation between different nations (PEACE) San Francisco Conference, April-June 1945 - was organized by the 4 Policemen - this conference was one of the development that led towards defining the concept of human rights which was declared officially in 1948 during the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (MONETARY) Bretton Woods Conference, June-July 1944 - Bretton Woods was a hotel at Hampshire - marks American change of policy  from isolationism to the protector of the world.  The US has been famous for their reluctance in participating with global cooperation ranging from League of Nations to the policy during the stock market crash where they demanded the country that owed their money to resume paying their debt to the US - Main achievement: to establish a global cooperation to balance the monetary system  IMF and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) were born  Participating nations are asked to adopt a monetary policy which ties itself to US Dollar to keep the global economy balanced International Monetary Fund - helps to keep the economy balanced - function: control the exchange rate system by: 1) financing shortage of capital on a short term, 2) - if can’t find, then Google its role immediately after WWII World Bank - helps to keep the economy balanced - was initially known as International Bank for Reconstruction (IRB) - functions: lend big money to projects that require big fund - if can’t find, then Google its role immediately after WWII [C&C Reading]
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