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HIST 103 Lecture Notes - Dumbarton Oaks Conference, Bretton Woods Conference, United Nations Conference On International Organization

4 pages66 viewsWinter 2013

Course Code
HIST 103
Jeffrey Byrne

of 4
Week 13 Reading
Atlantic Charter, August 1941
- a meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt in Newfoundland (before WWII) to discuss about
war aims and postwar settlements
- this is driven by the spirit of Atlanticism: speak the same language, same shared culture. They
are also envisioning a new world order
- Content of the agreement:
1. The countries won’t annex other country
2. No annexation against the will of the people concerned
3. Respect the wish of the people who want to form their own government and see the
force they used to possess deprived of them to be restored.
4. Each state has an equal access to trade and to the raw materials of the world which are
needed for their economic prosperity
5. Collaboration between all nations in the economic field
6. Hope to gain peace which give assurance to men that they have their freedom in life
7. Men can travel high seas and oceans without limit
8. All nations must abandon the use of force
Inter-Allied Information Committee
- a propaganda committee which helped to spread propaganda among the Allied nations.
This led towards the war of moral with propaganda being spread everywhere possible
(radio and print)
- this committee was created in the 1940s to spread propaganda against the opponents such as
propaganda of the Allies against the Germans
- this propaganda includes the manipulation of information to create confusion
United Nations Declaration, January 1942
- The name United Nations was proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt
- A declaration against the Axis
- 2 discussion about creating the United Nations:
1) issue of human’s rights vs. state’s rights
2) believe in Wilson Principal (of not using military force to obtain the person’s need) but at the
same time realized the need of using army as a backup if anything goes wrong
- this declaration pledges to uphold the Atlantic Charter in 1941
- fight against the Germans and the Japanese
Arsenal of Democracy
- The US promise to help the British fight against the Nazi
- But they help by not directly getting the US army involve. Instead, they sent military supplies,
food, ships because they believe in democracy
- This is called ‘arsenal’ because most of American industries helped to manufacture military
supplies for the Britain  The Americans became the protector of democracy
- helping the Allies against the Axis
“Uncle Joe
- a propaganda to build Joseph Stalin’s image in the period between 1940 – 1945 by the British
and the US
Stalin’s image was already bad with his large number of killing
- Russian, father figure, propaganda with the blessing of US
- aim: to make people feel more Russian
- propaganda: similar to US’ propaganda against the Japanese
- all of the adherence to Stalin’s demand was solely not wanting to risk the chance of winning
against the Nazis
Percentages Agreement, October 1944
- it occurred in Moscow between Churchill and Stalin.
- about dividing territories between British and Russia in states such as Rumania, Greece,
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia
- Russia never accepted it and it was proposed by Churchill
The Four Policemen (1944)
- The Four Policemen (US, Britain, Soviet Union and China)  the 4 great powers
They maintain the order of the world by keeping peace in own region
- Was introduced in 1945 as part of the post-war arrangement
- China was absorbed reluctantly
- This policy was resented by the smaller countries because it diminish the power of Security
Council members
- takes effect from the UN Declaration in 1942
- UN Charters on June 1945 – International Diplomatic Conference
- Roosevelt saw the future for the “4 Policemen” (Britain, US, Russia, China) – China was
absorbed reluctantly
- signed by 50 states
- was resented by the smaller countries because it diminishes the power of Security Council
(PEACE) Dumbarton Oaks Conference, August-October 1944
- post-war arrangement  discussed the possibility of establishing an organization that would
maintain peace after WWII ends
One of the issues addressed: the issue of veto power in the Security Council
- sought to establish an international cooperation between different nations
(PEACE) San Francisco Conference, April-June 1945
- was organized by the 4 Policemen
- this conference was one of the development that led towards defining the concept of human
rights which was declared officially in 1948 during the Universal Declaration of Human
(MONETARY) Bretton Woods Conference, June-July 1944
- Bretton Woods was a hotel at Hampshire
- marks American change of policy  from isolationism to the protector of the world.
The US has been famous for their reluctance in participating with global cooperation
ranging from League of Nations to the policy during the stock market crash where they
demanded the country that owed their money to resume paying their debt to the US
- Main achievement: to establish a global cooperation to balance the monetary system
IMF and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) were born
Participating nations are asked to adopt a monetary policy which ties itself to US Dollar
to keep the global economy balanced
International Monetary Fund
- helps to keep the economy balanced
- function: control the exchange rate system by: 1) financing shortage of capital on a short
term, 2)
- if can’t find, then Google its role immediately after WWII
World Bank
- helps to keep the economy balanced
- was initially known as International Bank for Reconstruction (IRB)
- functions: lend big money to projects that require big fund
- if can’t find, then Google its role immediately after WWII
[C&C Reading]
Harry Truman, Winston Churchill, Chiang-Kai Shek [Postdam Declaration] -
- The Japanese was forced to surrender by signing the Postdam Declaration in 1945. In this
agreement, the Japanese will agree to the condition of “unconditional surrender”
- this agreement has UK, US and China as the participants
- Japan must choose either to continue associating herself with the Germans or by
- Japan’s power on their territories are limited and only given according to what US/UK/China
- the Japanese military force are completely disarmed before can go home
- No intention to make the Japanese as the war slave. However, war criminals will be prosecure.
- granting the freedom of speech, religion, thought and respect for fundamental human
- Japan can develop its economy but cannot engage in production for armament purposes
- the Allies occupation will evacuate Japan when all of the terms have been fulfilled
United Nations 196 200
- as a reaction to the atrocities occurred during WWII
- produced in 1948 which is called the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- aims of the declaration:
Foundation of freedom, justice and peace is established by having equal and inalienable
rights. Individuals can enjoy the freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and
Human rights should be protected by the rule of law
To promote the development of friendly relations between nations
Equal rights of men and women
Member States will co-operate with the United Nations to promote a universal respect for
and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms
- content of the declaration:
1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They have the ability to
reason and possess conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of
2. Everyone (regardless of sex, gender, race, political affiliation, status in a country) is
entitled to all the rights and freedoms listed in this Universal Declaration of Human
3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person
4. No slavery
5. No torture

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