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History_103_Lecture Jan 22nd

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HIST 103

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History 103 Lecture – 22nd January 01/22/2014
The Truman Doctrine and “Containment” in Europe:
i. Marshall Plan
ii. NATO
Hot War in Asia: Korea, 1950-53
Stalin proclaimed that War was inevitable as long as capitalism continued to exist.
Core of Truman doctrine to contain the spread of communism territorially by the dispersment by US
economic and military assistance.
Marshall Plan and the creation of a defensive alliance known as “NATO”
Popular support for communists in France and Italy had been growing rapidly since the end of the war
to the extent that the communist party had become as important player in global politics.
Communists held cabinet posts through 1947 and well beyond that, not uncommon to see the mayors of
towns and cities as communists.
Reasons for communism
Political establishment in the countries had been tainted due to their fascist ways.
Combination of economic dislocation on one hand and fear that that communists would take advantage
of it on the other hand,
The US had a strong interest in restoring Western Europe’s status as a major trading partner.
Geopolitical objectives coinciding with US economic interests as well.
IN March 1947, various considerations came together by George Marshall in a speech given at Harvard
university. Seasoned political observer and diplomat and experienced military figure.
In 1947, he had just returned from a failed diplomatic mission in China to get rid of communism?
In theory, the Marshall Plan was open to all of Europe including Eastern Europe and the Soviet union.
However, communist states were only eligible if they agreed to open up their economies to private
foregin investment.
So the Marshall Plan approved 17 billion dollars of investment to Europe to Britain, France and Italy
The money was given on the condition that it be spent in the USA and also to a lesser extent, in
Canada. For manufactured good, equipment’s and agricultural products. Domestic/ political angle to this
plan as well as it represented a huge govt/ subsidy to the business sector.
The USSR made their copy-cat version of this known as the COMECON.
Division of labour had the effect of breeding investment. Romania the “vegetable garden” of Eastern
Some countries now had imp. Industrial niches etc.
Involved the creation of military alliances and US took the lead in the late 1940s of having a series of
regional defense alliances, the most imp. Of which was NATO set up in 1949. It had 12 original member
USA, Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Portugal, Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg, Norway, Denmark, Iceland
Later, Turkey was also added.
From it’s basis, NATO deployed conventional and nuclear forces armed at the SU.
USSR involved by tightening grip on Eastern Europe by a troop build up and in 1955, they had their own
version of NATO which came to be known as the Warsaw Pact.
This would work to the advantage of North Korea.
Korea jointly occupied by USA and USSR.
North of the 38th parallel – USSR and south was occupied by the USA.
This partition of Korea was part of the Yalta agreement aimed at securing Soviet participation against
Japan and the partition supposed to be temporary.
Kim il Sung spent much of WW2 in SU.
The miracles of chairman Mao
American’s installed Syngman Rhee.
In 1949, US and USSR decided to withdraw forces from the Korean peninsula. The problem was that
both Syngman Rhee and Kim Il Sung wanted to unite the peninsula, by force if necessary. This lead to
the invasion of South Korea by the North.
Truman chose to view the North Korean invasion in global terms and he believed that the North Korean
attack was masterminded by Moscow and that this was the opening shot or the first stage of Moscow’s
conspiracy to advance communism in Asia.

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History 103 Lecture – 22  January nd 01/22/2014 Topics: The Truman Doctrine and “Containment” in Europe: i. Marshall Plan ii. NATO Hot War in Asia: Korea, 1950­53 Stalin proclaimed that War was inevitable as long as capitalism continued to exist.  Core of Truman doctrine to contain the spread of communism territorially by the dispersment by US  economic and military assistance.  Marshall Plan and the creation of a defensive alliance known as “NATO” Popular support for communists in France and Italy had been growing rapidly since the end of the war  to the extent that the communist party had become as important player in global politics.  Communists held cabinet posts through 1947 and well beyond that, not uncommon to see the mayors of  towns and cities as communists. Reasons for communism Political establishment in the countries had been tainted due to their fascist ways. Combination of economic dislocation on one hand and fear that that communists would take advantage  of it on the other hand,  The US had a strong interest in restoring Western Europe’s status as a major trading partner.  Geopolitical objectives coinciding with US economic interests as well. IN March 1947, various considerations came together by George Marshall in a speech given at Harvard  university. Seasoned political observer and diplomat and experienced military figure.  In 1947, he had just returned from a failed diplomatic mission in China to get rid of communism?  In theory, the Marshall Plan was open to all of Europe including Eastern Europe and the Soviet union.  However, communist states were only eligible if they agreed to open up their economies to private  foregin investment.  So the Marshall Plan approved 17 billion dollars of investment to Europe to Britain, France and Italy  mostly.  The money was given on the condition that it be spent in the USA and also to a lesser extent, in  Canada. For manufactured good, equipment’s and agricultural products. Domestic/ political angle to this  plan as well as it represented a huge govt/ subsidy to the business sector.  The USSR made their copy­cat version of this known as the COMECON.  Division of labour had the effect of breeding investment. Romania the “vegetable garden” of Eastern  Europe.  Some countries now had imp. Industrial niches etc.  Involved the creation of military alliances and US took the lead in the late 1940s of having a series of  regional defense alliances, the most imp. Of which was NATO set up in 1949. It had 12 original member  states,  USA, Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Portugal, Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg, Norway, Denmark, Iceland Later, Turkey was also added.  From it’s
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