PART II: PRIMARY DOCUMENT QUOTATIONS (30%)
● From the Pentateuch (Hebrew oral traditions, commandments, and origin stories/history).
● Given to Moses on Mount Sinai.
● 13th Century BC.
● Genesis: Marriage.
○ Jacob and his two wives.
■ Rachel and Leah.
● Work for daughters (7 years each).
● Oldest has to get married before the youngest.
■ Everyone wants kids, Rachel jealous of Leah at first for being fertile, Jacob
sleeping with servants to have kids
■ Zilpan=Leah’s servant
■ Bilhah=Rachel’s servant
■ “Give me children, or I’ll die!”
■ 12 son’s total, 1 daughter
● Proverbs: What it means to be a woman.
○ Be humble.
○ Be strong.
○ Be kind.
● Wife of noble character, provides food for family, works hard/vigorously
○ “She watches over the affairs of her household”
Marriage in Roman Society and Law
● 18 BC.
● Emperor Augustus.
○ Had to invoke his laws against his own daughter Julia
● Social problems of Rome.
○ Extravagance and adultery.
● Hoped to elevate the moral and numbers of the upper classes.
● + increase number of native Italians.
○ Upper classes: “marriage was increasingly infrequent and, many couples who did marry
failed to produce offspring”
● Made adultery a crime.
○ Punishable by death (or exile, confiscation of property).
● Augustan social laws=badly received, modified in 9 BCE
● By the 6/4th century, many of these laws were repealed by the Christian Church, led to disuse
under Roman emperor Constantine
○ Except law about intermarriage in Justinian
● Need women (even if they suck) => because of how nature works in terms of childbearing
● Augustus bringing back Metellus’ speech because it seemed “written for the hour”
● Punish the unmarried and celebrate the women (+ men can marry free women [too many men]).