HIST 105 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Internet Protocol, Hostname, Wael Ghonim

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3 Apr 2016

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Case study no.1: Egypt and the politics of social media
the internet is the basic platform from which all of this becomes possible
History of the internet
The Internet got its start over 50 years ago and computers back then filled up entire rooms
scientists and researchers used it for years to communicate during the cold war
it was useful because if one computer went down the others wouldn’t follow
in 1962 a scientist named J.C.R. Licklider proposed a network of computers that could talk to each other
in 1969 the first ever message was sent from one computer to another over the ARPANET (The Advanced Research Projects
Agency Network) - the governments computer network at the time
one was located in a research lab in UCLA and the other at Stanford
All the message said was “LOGIN” and it didn’t fail
Stanford only received the first 2 letters
by the end of the year, only 4 computers were connected to the network
in 1971 The University of Hawaii’s “Aloha” network was added, followed by several networks in London, and Norway two
years later
Ray Tomlinson also was developing a system that would sent mail back and forth between users of arpranet
this was eventually called electronical mail or e-mail for short
@ symbol was used to tell a persons name from a hostname apart
Vinton Cerf invented a way to introduce computers across the globe to each other through a virtual space
this invention was called transmission control protocol which was followed by internet protocol
they used cert’s protocol to send data back and forth
in 1990s is where it all began.
in 1991, a programer named Tim Berners-Lee invented The World Wide Web
this wasn’t just a data sharing space for scientists anymore, but was an entire network of information accessible to
anyone with an Internet connection
in 1992 Erwise was created
this was an internet browser and the first to have a graphical interphase
in 1993 Mosaic was created
and it was popularized for surfing the web
in 1994 Netscape navigator was created
it became the most popular browser at the time — 90% of web usage
in early 90s
AOL started providing dial-up
method of connecting internet through a telephone line
telephone line connected through a modem and the other end was plugged into the phone jack
there was a period in history where you couldn’t use your telephone and internet at the same time
without the internet, we wouldn’t have social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube; but more importantly, we
wouldn’t be able to access info in seconds, or communicate with people around the world
History of Facebook
February 2004: Mark Zuckerberg and a few friends developed Facebook from a harvard dorm
by September they launched the Facebook wall
Zuckerberg gets sued by Winkle Boss Twins who claim that he stole their idea
by the end of the year Facebook has a million users
in 2005 more colleges are allowed to join Facebook and begins to add international school networks.This is where it reaches
6 million users. Facebook also launches Facebook Photos at the time.
By September of 2006 Facebook for Mobile Launches
allowing anyone over 13 to join — and expands to add work networks
Facebook also introduces the first version of the Facebook API enabling users to share their info with the third party
websites and applications they choose
Launch of News Feed and mini Feed
by the end of the year Facebook has 12 million users
by 2007
Facebook launches platform which is a system for developers to create apps and games — FarmVille
sells 1.6% of itself to microsoft for 240M dollars
launch of self service ads platform and Facebook pages
Facebook reaches 58 million users
by 2008
Facebook launches in spanish french and german
iphone app
launch of Facebook chat, enabling people to instant message with their friends
launch of Facebook connect, allowing users to connect their Facebook identity, friends and privacy to any site
Facebook reaches 145 million users
by 2009
introduction of the Like button, enabling people to connect with the things they care about both on and o Facebook
becomes more popular than myspace
launch of Facebook usernames
launch of Facebook payments
reached 360 million users
by 2010
launch of Facebook Questions
launch of Facebook places, enabling people to share where they are with friends in real time
introduction of new groups, enabling people to share with small groups of people
launch of the new profile
608 million users
by 2011
launches ipad app
moves to a new oce
reached 845M users
by 2012
new timeline designed mandatory for all users
announces plans to buy instagram
How do these forms of social media shape political practice and political change?
global tech transfer
we have lots of phones and cameras
when everyone is able to take technology for granted
developed world vs developing world
innovation could happen anywhere, that we could take the idea for granted that we are all in this together
its happening everywhere
printing press = innovations that made printing possible
conversational media = telegraph and the telephone
recorded media other than print = videos, sound
sound and images through the air = radio and television
this is what we grew up with
the media that is good at creating conversations is no good at creating groups
and the media that is good at creating groups is no good at creating conversation
internet =
motive carriage for all other media
phone/magazine through the internet
every medium is right next door to every other medium
producers and not consumers
earthquake being reported as it is happening
as it was happening the news was reporting
this is through social media!
the last time this has happened in china, it took them 3 months for them to admit that this has happened.
they learnt about the news through their citizens and not through the news
incredible coordinated global response = donations within seconds
great firewall of china: set of observation points that believes that the social media and internet comes from the
outside — they’re able to filter it
1. what is the relationship between a medium and its public?
2. What is the role and place of media in historical transformations large and small?
3. What are the limits of the power of media?
4. How do social media work in particular in this context?
Wael Ghonim’s Interview on National Public Radio
he was the creator of the Facebook page which drew thousands of protestors to Tahrir Square in January 2011
Reclaiming Silence in Egypt
silence revolution — they argue that dear, paranoia and limited access to the internet
individuals or group support are present and where interpersonal relationships have a greater impact on one’s
views than impersonal public opinion
Ablaze the Body Politic
Egypt Dared to Defy
the egyptian revolution defied a matrix of regional political interests from Israeli pressure end Suadi
intransigence to US equivocation
they stated that Mubarak was not a dictator
the revolution was not advocating communism nor was it pushing for further neoliberalization
The revolution started largely by a population that liked a Facebook group created by Wael Ghonim.
post revolution
Patron Saints
egyptians revolution was leaderless
Blood Ballots
hundreds of soldiers went on a rampage in Tahrir Square
four days before the elections, 47 protestors were killed
perspective 5 years later
Egypt 5 Years On: Was It Ever a Social Media Revolution?
the nature of each pro democracy uprising, and they ultimate success varied wildly from country to country
main common characteristic: social media
social media provided opportunities for organization and protest that traditional methods couldnt
scheduled protests, twitter to coordinate, and youtube to tell the world
Wael Ghonmin was credited with the Egyptian revolution through a Facebook page: We are all Khaled Said
100,000 followers in 3 days
“Social media is a space for expression beyond those parameters of control, and for many it is a very powerful. But
we should keep in mind that they are predominantly privately-owned and abide by the rules of those corporations,
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