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HIST 220 - 1848 Revolution Notes.docx

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HIST 220
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HIST 220: January 16, 2014 – 1848 Revolutions Background - Louis Philippe (King of the French from 1830-1848, July Monarchy) abdicates the throne - there was general, agricultural and commercial distress added with unemployment which created public unrest - during the period of unemployment, National Workshops were created by the Provisional Government (French Second Republic) in an attempt to stimulate the economy - National Workshops - government provided jobs for the unemployed who were paid minimally (dead end jobs) - land taxes were put in place to support the project, but the peasants did not pay these taxes - a new conservative government elected to stop the National Workshops as there was not enough money  leads to the June days uprisings - the June day uprisings resulted in the Liberals prevailing over the Radical Republicans - following the victory, Louis Napoleon was elected and rules the Second French Empire for 20 20 years Romanticism: 1170s – 1850s - Romanticism was a set of attitudes - early romantic thinkers were Rousseau, Goethe, Herder - felt that the enlightenment had gone too far in this mechanical approach - reduced man to a mechanical model, didn’t account for human emotions and ingenuity - Rousseau wrote epistolary novels in the form of letters - epistolary novels were a device to explore peoples inner lives through letters and fictionalized characters  people in these letters pour out their emotions - known for political and philosophical writing, took an interest in the emotional lives of individuals and communities - Darnton argued that Rousseau’s work was the first popular mass marketed novel - characters discovered their essential inner being - romantics looked at how individuals experience the world - expanded their thinking to the factory system of the Industrial Revolution - Later Romanticism critiqued the dehumanization of the factory system Conservatism - idea proposed by Edmund Burke - argued that the revolution made things worse because it destabilized and established a new dictatorship - society as an organism and history as organic (not mechanical) - respect for authority and tradition (things that have proven themselves overtime) - throwing things out was fool-hardy and would destabilize society and old order would be replaced with terror and chaos - agrarian economies and values - industrialism seemed to eating away at the moral and social fabric of traditional society - social changes were related to democracy which conservatives thought would lead to anarchy - this idea favoured monarchs and limited suffrage - would lead to a small, educated, and land owning elite 1848 Revolutions: Beginnings - revolutions started in France and escalated across Central Europe - France became testing grounds for the new ideologies of socialism and nationalism - came into conflict with liberalism - these battles were beginning of long term ideological battles that would rage on Three Frames of Analysis: 1. Structure/long: political and social order 2. Medium: Social and economic history of 1840s 3. Short: politics in 1848 1848 Revolutions - into the 1840s, most of Europe was straddled with an old regime political system  ruled by monarchs - result of French Revolution was overturned by the Napoleonic era  back to old political regime in 1815 - the Old Regime modernized economies even as old political orders were reinstated - leaders in Europe tried to put things back to the way they were after Napoleon - Congress of Vienna, 1815 - areas should be run by legitimate rulers - royal families were reinstated - Metternich System, 1815-1848 - recreate monarchies in areas where revolution had it overturned - descendants of former rulers were placed on
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