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HIST 220 - Oct 2.pdf

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HIST 220

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HIST 220 – Oct 2, 2013 Peasant Uprisings - increase of peasant uprisings in Germany and Central Europe in the 16 century - general assumption, that there were not uprisings in countries like Italy and Spain - however, there were uprisings in other countries other than German speaking lands  Hungary, Russia, and parts of Scandinavia - widespread phenomenon - reasons were similar in other parts of Europe as they were in Central Europe - increase pressure from landlords  decrease in rights - increase in the frequency of famine - less of a sense of responsibility of the nobility to help the peasants (ex. In times of famine) - France, Italy and in Spain Inquisition - In Spain, Catholic Church in alliance with the State - tracking down on any source of dissent - lots of people were suspected of being a heretic/ supporter of Protestantism  tortured or put to death - people were so afraid of doing anything that would make them be suspected of heresy - Church and State were so closely intertwined  helped make things blur for the countryside - In Italy, Roman Inquisition - similar to the Inquisition in Spain - used as a tactic to control dissent\ Apocalypse th - in the 16 century, all across Europe  people were certain that there would be an imminent arrival of the Apocalypse - in the book of Revelations  described how the end of the world was going to occur (Judgement Day) th - throughout the 16 century, many editions of Revelations were published - most were either illustrated by Durer or contained images from his collection of works called the “Apocalypse” - within one of Durer’s images, he drew of the 4 horsemen of the Apocalypse - became very iconic and well recognised - prophetic figure of war, famine, disease and death  each associated with a colour, although no colour in Durer’s image, there were associated with a colour in Revelations The White Horse: Prophets and Prophecy - prophecies of the imminent coming of Christ and the day of Judgement - can imagine the White Horse as an actual prophet that has come to warn people to repent and prepare for Judgement - or can be taken symbolically as a set of natural signs that the day of Judgement will come - comets, earthquakes, floods, and other natural disasters HIST 220 – Oct 2, 2013 The White Horse: Prophets and Prophecy - 16 century was a period where there was an increase sensitivity to the demonic and witchcraft - people looked for and saw signs of the Anti-Christ everywhere - a lot of violence and persecution for those suspected of demonic signs and magic - Martin Luther was also believed by many to be a prophet about the end of time - not only him, but many others that were charismatic figures of the Protestant Reformation The Red Horse: War - 1500 to 1650 saw an outburst of long and drawn out wars - warfare during this time escalated into great destructiveness - increase of warfare had 3 intertwined causes - era of increasingly powerful states, but also a time where traditionally powerful regions tried to fight against their declining influence - ex. Charles the V, King of Spain and Emperor of the Roman Empire fighting smaller princes and dukes of Germany - ex. Localized wars between dukes, princes and nobles within their realms - different regions/factions within existing states at war  France - Spread of Protestantism mapped and encouraged political divisions - sometimes regional rulers would embrace Protestantism in order to press claims of autonomy from the Holy Roman Emperor - Protestantism helped solidify political differences - Europe’s growing wealth - Spain had acquired a lot of silver and gold from exploring into the New World - other countries fighting for colonies in the New World for sources of income - rise in income which benefitted sovereigns (kings and emperors) helped to fund wars within Christian Europe and against the Ottoman Empire - Ottoman expansion into Europe in the 15 century had many very concerned th - in the 16 century, concerns about Muslim influence in Europe blended with the apocalyptic mood - Turks were often portrayed as devils or the Anti-Christ - expanse of wealth also financed much larger armies than had been seen before - drawn both from volunteers (people who wanted to make their fortunes in the military and mercenaries hired from elsewhere to fight in wars) - increase use in guns and cannons - most expensive and technologically advanced weapons at the time - made warfare increasingly deadly and gruesome  a lot of soldiers who
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