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HIST 325 (17)
Lecture

hist 325-1.docx

2 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 325
Professor
Jonathan Newell

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Treaty 8: An Enigma of BC History  Key points about numbered Treaties: ◦ Federal government assumed responsibility for native people in Rupert's Land TransferAct of 1868 ◦ Treaties were part of that responsibility ◦ Goal: to facilitate peaceful development of newly acquired territory ▪ Share between agricultural and hunting ▪ Warfare in US set bad example for Canada (cowboys chasing Indians) ▪ Canadians knew warfare was expensive and inhumane and would put them behind schedule for a developed and independent country ◦ Provided: ▪ Reserves (community-based) ▪ Lump-sum payments at signing ▪ Annuities (annual payment per person) for land (not welfare) ▪ Livelihood rights on undeveloped off-reserve land --> natives can use land until land is taken and used (by whites) ◦ Treaty 8 first treaty beyond Rupert's Land ▪ River went toArctic, not Hudson's Bay ▪ Rich in oil and gas  Treaty 8: ◦ Who lived there in the 1890s? ▪ Athabasca speakers (ex. Chipewyan) andAlgonquian speakers (ex. Cree) ▪ Sparsely populated ▪ Small, mobile groups ▪ Buffalo-hunting, fishing, subsistent people ◦ What was nature of aboriginal economy in the 1890s? ▪ Hunting-fishing economy ▪ Part of fur trade ▪ Income from trapping (meat, fur) for commercial and subsistent purposes ▪ Subject to periodic shortages due to normal fluctuations (nature's course) ▪ Petitioned for treaty before government was ready ▪ Annuities gave flexibil
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