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HIST 325
Jonathan Newell

Treaty 8, 1899: Review  First treaty outside Rupert's Land; last signed in the 19 century  Klondike Gold Rush (all Canadian, back-door routes) the catalyst  Encompassed federal and provincial (BC) jurisdictions, which had dissimilar treaty-making traditions  It included major ambiguities; basis of the boundaries on official map unknown. Boundary ambiguities are significant to aboriginal rights today (e.g. oil & gas)  Government of Canada assumed responsibility for all of Rupert's land through the Rupert's Land TransferAct, 1868-1870, when HBC sold to Canada (year after confederation in 1867)  Treaties were part of that responsibility (Canada assumed responsibility for aboriginal peoples and their rights). Treaties had to guarantee Indians access to Indian lands and traditional livelihoods  Another goal of treaty making was also to facilitate peaceful development of newly acquired territory.  BC joined Canada in 1871  Warfare south of border; not wanting that in Canada: financial costs (Canada borrowed 1.5 million to buy Rupert's Land, so must avoid delay in settling and developing the land; peaceful, swift settlement the goal).  Provided reserves set aside for community reserves; Indians to choose the areas  Provided lump-sum payments at signing  Provided annuities.Aform of delayed payment, in perpetuity. Cash payment annually  Provided livelihood rights for traditional vocation on off-reserve undeveloped land  1870s: buffalos rapid decline (important to natives and metis as food and clothes)  Key questions: ◦ Who lived in the area in the 1890s? ◦ What was the nature of the aboriginal economy of the 1890s? ◦ How did the federal government manage to get BC on board when BC didn't want to recognizeAboriginal title? ◦ Why were there western boundary ambiguities and issues? Entering the Next Century: Imagining a National Economy and Capturing/opening the Prairie West  Optimism of the new century ◦ “I think that we can claim that it is Canada that shall fill the 20 century” Canadian Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier ◦ Any basis for this assertion? ▪ Yes: there was a national or nationalistic policy for the new dominion and it seemed to be working. ▪ Industrial growth; transcontinental and other railways; other infrastructure for exporting Canada's resources and products; NWMP; Indian dept.And treaties for prairie lands; dominion fisheries, mines, agriculture; land and geological surveys; immigration policies; mineral discoveries (Klondike Gold Rush); agricultural development (priority); explosive population growth; several new provinces in confederation (original confederation only had 4 provinces) ▪ Prairie provinces didn't get power until 1970s??? ▪ Since 1896 alone:  Canada had just participated in its first overse
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