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University of British Columbia
HIST 325
Jonathan Newell

Immigration Campaign  Who was recruited, who came, and why? ◦ Original attempts in Prairie farm failed therefore needed new immigration policies during Laurier period 1896  Overview: Laurier Years ◦ Why look at immigration? ▪ Source of tension and leads to reforms and policy-makers ▪ Important to policy-making, institutions ◦ Did immigrants come? Numbers? ▪ Yes, lots ◦ Source of immigrants? --Depends on period ▪ Before 1896: British and Eastern Canadian ▪ After 1896: northern Europeans and people they didn't want ◦ Distribution of immigrants? ▪ Uneven (also for economical benefits) ▪ 1/2 go to Prairie west, other half go to Ontario, Quebec ▪ Very few went to BC and Maritimes  Sifton: Minister of Interior (of Canada) ◦ Sheepskin coats= Slavic speakers who understood hardships and wheat farming and hard/cold winters ◦ Why? Because they were already used to the hardships and had the skills therefore could speed up development ◦ Russian refugees-- Dukhobors  Oliver: successor of Sifton ◦ Recruited Canadians, British,Americans ◦ Why? Will create legacy that'll undermine Canadian identity if all foreigners immigrate ◦ British: too arrogant to farm and do hard work  Policy: ImmigrationActs ◦ 1906 and 1910 increasingly restrictive ◦ 1910Act: unlimited power to exclude “immigrants belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements of Canada” ◦ Blacks: originally climate too hot ◦ Non-Christians: too different to be assimilated ◦ Very subjective ◦ Amendments excluded specific racial groups  Who was unsuitable? How restricted? ◦ Blacks: wrong climate ◦ Chinese: head tax (1885), complete exclusion by 1923 ◦ Japanese: gentlemen's agreement 1907, 400 limit per year ◦ SouthAsians (part of British Empire): continuous journey clause 1908 ◦ Some Europeans (ex. Italians): not recruited  Immigration:Always a Dynamic (Push-Pull) ◦ Wheat causes people, families, villages to leave a country (push) ▪ Conscription at home, family separation ▪ Lots of recruiting from Canada ◦ What attracted them to Canada (pull) ▪ Allowed Bloc settlement ▪ Assisted passages (subsidies, free passage, free/cheaper land) ▪ Schools, infrastructure, freedom, economic opportunities  Lost Harvests: Saga of Indian Reserve Farming 1880s-1920
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