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HIST 325
Jonathan Newell

Review: Chinatowns and the VancouverAnti-Asiatic Riots, 1907  Summary: ◦ Chinatowns: critical economic nodes and enclaves for overseas Chinese labour migration ◦ Japanese a new target forAsiatic exclusion league ◦ Mounting anti-Chinese and Japanese hostility, BC ◦ Vancouver Riots 1907 followed US; caused changes to the Immigration act and Stranger's Within our Gates ◦ Anti-Asiatic rampage 1907 publicized across the world ◦ Mackenzie King's reports: reinforcement of Canada as a ―white‖ nation and SouthAsians as the new target ◦ Riots a combination of majority Canadians' fear of economic competition and sense of racial superiority Lecture: Unlikely Canadian Persons of International Interest  E. Pauline Johnson, Mohawk Poet, Writer, and Entertainer  Lucy Maude Montgomery, PEIAuthor,Anne of Green Gables (1908) (So Similar, So Different)  Why was Johnson Special? ◦ Intelligent, well-read, notable in the late 19 and early 20 century in Canada, US, GB ◦ Great beauty; of mixed Indian and English ancestry ◦ Widely-published poems and internationally-famous performances celebrated equally her Indian heritage and her patriotism for Canada and the British Empire ◦ Many of her poems called for reconciliation and brotherhood between Canadian and Native peoples; that quality is studied closely today  ―Riders of the Plains‖ [NWMP] ◦ ...But we of the North will answer, while life in the North remains, Let the curs beware lest the whelps they dare are the Riders of the Plains. For these are the kind whose muscle makes the power of the Lion's jaw, and they keep the peace of our people and the honour of British law. From Johnson, Canadian Born, 1903  Background ◦ Father (George Johnson) was Head Mohawk Chief, of mixed ancestry; mother (Emily Howells), an English-born, US immigrant ◦ Raised on Six Nations Reserve (Brantford, Ontario) in relative affluence; home schooled; Indian Day school (for 2 years); Brantford Central Collegiate, graduating 1877 (in white town with white kids) ◦ Wrote and performed in amateur theatre productions and published her first, full-length poems, in early 1880s; 1 performed poems 1892 ◦ Supported her widowed mother 1884-1898 (father died in 1884)  The Sold-Out Performances ◦ Performed her patriotic poetry and short storied in 1892-1909, in Canada, US and England, from cities to remote communities ◦ Performances by cowboys and Indians popular ◦ She developed a unique, stage persona ◦ Assembled and wore a feminine Native costume (as a Mohawk Princess) in first part of the show reciting her Indian lyrics ◦ Changed into fashionable English dress-as a Victorian lady-- for second half, to recite her ―English‖ patriotic verse  Ended Her Days in Vancouver ◦ Retired from the stage 1909; moved to Vancouver, ill with breast cancer, and poor ◦ Published a series of articles for the local newspaper based on stories learned from Joe Capilano, Chief of the Squamish Band ◦ She befriended him in London when he was protesting hunting and fishing regulations in BC ◦ Vancouver friends published collection of the stories in 1911, to raise funds for her support ◦ The book, Legends of Vancouver, became a Vancouver classic  After She Died in 1913 ◦ Ashes buried near Siwash Rock in Stanley Park. In 1922 a cairn erected at the burial site, ―in memory of one whose life and writings were an uplift and a blessing to our nation‖ ◦ Aboulder placed in the Johnson family plot at th
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