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hist 325-1.docx

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HIST 325
Jonathan Newell

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Review: Wartime Votes and Women and Temperance/ Prohibition  1917: Wartime ElectionsAct and Military VotersAct & Military Service (Conscription)Act unpopular because by then all those who wanted to participate were already in the war and those who didn’t want to join were then conscripted  women’s suffrage campaigns: “Votes for Women” and WWI federal vote for women 1918 (Provincially beginning 1916; patterns)  temperance starting well before WWI (linked to women’s sufrage0 and eventually, federal and provincial prohibition, in wartime; vs. in US  Quebec (always against prohibition & votes for women-held out provincially) being out of sync with rest of Canada re: war enlistment prohibition and votes for women  the political fallout for future elections farmers, Quebecers started forming own parties  skewed those who joined war were mainly of British descent Lecture: Death so Noble How Canadians Made Sense of “The Great War” Post War (English-speaking Canada)  “In Flanders Fields” (original) In Flanders field the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row, That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die  John McRae(1872-1918) Canadian Surgeon & Poet o Author of “in Flanders fields” was from Guelph, Ontario. & a veteran of the Boer war; he died in the battlefields of France in the last months of the war st o Canadian army medical corps officer, 1 Canadian division, in Flanders, near Ypres, mid-April 1915 (he was 43) o Outnumbered, Canadians distinguished themselves at this 2 battle of Ypres for holding the line against the first German gas attack of the war while others fled o 22-year-old friend of McRae’s was blown up; the poem written overnight for his funeral o poem, and its reference to poppies, became “an eternal motif” for the collective memory of the war  Poppies: Symbol of Remembrance of the Fallen o McRae’s symbol-poppies-went international o Afemale member ofAmerican Overseas YMCAwrote poem vowing to always wear the red poppy as symbol of remembrance & “keeping the faith with all who died” (a reference to In Flanders..) o She lobbiedAmerican Legion to adopt the poppy o Awoman in France then had poppies manufacture and sold to raise funds for the rebuilding of Europe o She convinced British and Canadian veterans organizations to adopt the poppy as a symbol 1921; Australia also adopted; became a project of disabled veterans  Remembrance (or Poppy, Memorial,Armistice) Day, Nov. 11 o Observed in each Commonwealth country (and US and many others) since the end of WWI to remember their armed forces members who died in the line of duty o Specifically request of the British dominions by King George V in 1919 to dedicate Nov. 11 o Canada developed an alternate date; created a public, federal statutory holiday (1931 act)  War Memorials 20s & 30s: Introduction o Long history of nations commemorating victories and sacrifices in battles with monuments; significant work of sculptors and artists o Canadians at
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