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MICB 202 Notes for PPT

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University of British Columbia
MICB 202

Topic 1: Intro to Immune System 1. 3 layers of defense against pathogens (disease-causing organism) a. Anatomical barriers i. Epithelium 1. Respiratory tract: ciliated, with mucus 2. Mucus, peristalisis in GI tract ii. Skin is dry, high salt content, defensins, cationic peptides 1. Remember, defensins are antimicrobial proteins that bind to bacteria walls and disrupt them. Are made by epithelial and phagocytic cells. iii. Stomach acid iv. Lysozyme in saliva, tears (attack peptidoglycan) b. Innate response (immediate to hours)—immediate complements, hours for the changes that occur to BV and cell activation which cause dna expression changes i. Complement=blood proteins 1. Promote phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages 2. Can lead to cytotoxic reactions that kill bacteria ii. Macrophages in tissue engulf bacteria iii. Innate is nonspecific, same proteins recognize the same patterns iv. Changes in BV walls to make it sticky and leaky so fluids, leucocytes (neutrophils, monocytes), complements can enter damanged tissue 1. Monocytes must mature into macrophages before engulfing v. Innate resolves over 95% of infections, limits spread of infection, initiate adaptive immune system c. Adaptive response i. Takes 7-10 days ii. Antibody mediated or cell mediated (B, T cells, respectively) 1. These cells must be activated which cause proliferation ito plasma, effector cells. a. Change in gene expression iii. Antibody Mediated response: 1. Dendritic cells=APCs present to T cellshelper T activationactivate B cellsplasma cellssecrete antibodiesreleased into blood iv. Helper T cells also activateCTLs activatedtarget own cells that are infected or tumor cells v. Macrophage response: macrophage engulfs pathogen but can’t destroy it. Activated helper t cell tells macrophage how to kill. Eg. Pneumonia, leprosy. Macrophage then self destructs. 2. Identify cellular components and protein components of immune system • Innate: o Neutrophil: engulf, kill bacteria o Macrophage: engulf, kill bacteria. APC. Tissue repair, wound healing o Dendritic cell: engulf, kill bacteria/virus. Migrate to lymph node to activate adaptive immune response. BRIDGE INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY • Adaptive: o Helper T  Facilitate activation of B cells, CTLs, macrophages. Using CYTOKINES o CTL: identify body cells that are infected (with virus) or tumor and destroy them o B  Secrete antibodies which • Kill bacteria • Opsonise pathogens (phagocytosis becomes more efficient) • Neutralize pathogens 3. Describe functions and location of lymphoid organs a. Primary: bone marrow, thymus i. Bone marrow=production of all blood cells ii. B cells mature + immunocompetent in bone marrow iii. T cells mature in thymus b. Secondary: lymph nodes, spleen, MALT, GALT--gut, BALT--bronchial i. Where B, T cells activated ii. Contain antigens the lymphoid organ trapped or is brought by dendritic cells
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