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Full Notes on HIV

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MICB 202
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HIV  • Enveloped icosahedral virus • 80­100nm diameter • 2 identical + rna strands • nucleocapsid • core 1. Fusion and entry a. Virus receptor=CD4 binds to gp120 of virus. Cause conformational change in gp120 b. Allows gp120 to bind to coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4 c. Allows gp41 to insert into host membrane and allow fusion. Core is released into cell 2. Reverse transcriptase becomes active in the core while in cytoplasm a. Core is permeable to dNTPs b. RNA +tRNA primer▯dsDNA▯nucleus w/ integrase▯incorproated into genome=latency i. Using reverse transcriptase 3. 4. HIV Genome a. All retroviruses have genome with 3 main parts in same order: GAG, POL, ENV i. Gag=structural=capsid, nucleocapsid, matrix, protease ii. Pol: polymerase, integrase iii. Env: gp120 gp41 iv. Also some regulatory genes that give virulence, produce more viruses etc. • Since it is incorporated into cell;s genome, once it is activated, it is treated like  any other mrna and processed by giving polyA tail and 5’ cap by host • 3 different pathways for synthesized mRNA o 1. No splicing occurs and mRNA makes its way near cell membrane as  genetic material o 2. No splicing occurs and cytoplasmic ribosomes read gag. Made and  cleaved.  accumulates near membrane where 120,41 are o 3. No splicing occurs and cytoplasmic ribosomes slip reading frames to  read pol. Made and cleaved. This is more rare. <10% accumulates near  membrane where 120,41 are o 4. Splicing occurs at ER, ER ribosomes make env gp 160  160 cleaved in Golgi into 120, 41.  Moves to membrane + insert  into membrane.   virus buds out  HIV proteases cleave macromolecules▯individual proteins for gag  and pol. Maturation. =virulent hiv formed  • Anti­virals have many different targets o Protease inhibitors o Reverse transc
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