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University of British Columbia
MUSC 120

HISTORY MUSIC 120Thursday Sept 8Periodization The conventional wisdomyears 9001400The Middle Agesyears 14001600 The Renaissanceth note If we talk about the 16 century we are referring to the 1500s 15001599Some GenresGregorian ChantOrganumMotetMassChansonSome Highlights of the Coursep18 By the year 800 Gregorian chant monophonyp58 c 850 earliest known multiple part music polyphonyp79 The musical decoration of religious ritual ie the organum of Notre Dame Parispage numbers refer to the AnthologyHISTORY MUSIC 120Tuesday Sept 13 The Christian Church in the First MillenniumChristian Theologymonotheism the belief in a single God Belief in God on earth as well as the Holy Spirit and the Holy Father forming the Holy TrinityRedemption of sinThe Eucharist the body and blood of Jesus Christ bread and wine that have been consecrated and are then consumed by the congregationrepresentation of the sacrifice of ChristChristian faith has a scriptural basis follow religious texts Old testament and new testament of the bibleOld testament Laws of old jewish covenantsNew testament The life and death and resurrection and ascension into heaven of Jesus Christ and the spreading of his message by his followers apostlesThe Roman EmpireChristianity came from PalestineChristianity was not approved at the time of its inception it was practiced by underground worshippers who were persecuted by the Roman authorities if caughtThose who died in the pursuit of the christian faith are often remembered as saints or martyrsthAt the beginning of the 4 century the 300s Rome was under the power of Constantine who during wartime had a vision of the Christian cross He then had the battle gear decorated with the cross and the soldiers carried banners depicting the cross and Rome had a huge war victory shortly afterwards Confirmation of the christian faith Christianity was legalized and later mandated as the only true or legal religionWESTWestern empire was mainly LatinFalls to barbarians by the year 476chaos tribal states cultural destruction cultural changeEASTEastern empire was mainly GreekSurvives until 1453 until Constantinople is conquered by the TurksJewish Psalms and Greek HymnsPSALMS150 songs of praise and supplication to God originally with instrumental accompanimentThought to have been composed by King David King of the JewsSung in christian church by c200 the foundation of liturgyLiturgy All of the actions supposed to take place during worship structured worship psalm tones a pitch that the melody hovers around Psalm 109 pg 26The psalms are Old TestamentEvery psalm in the Christian liturgy ends with the doxology Glory be to the Father and to the HISTORY MUSIC 120Sonand to the Holy Spirit As it was in the beginning is now and ever shall be world without end Amen Its a kind of tag added on to affirm the threefold nature of God essentially making the Old Testament psalms appropriate for the New Testament church Antiphon Greek for responserelevant to the New Testament added onto the psalmsusually contains parts of the original psalm commitment to the old jewish psalmistry but they have been framed by christians to be seen in a christian wayHYMNSStrophic songs of praiseAmbrose of Milan thought to have created the style of antiphonal chant where the choir is split in half and sing back and forththBy the 5 century hymns were assigned to the daily offices in monasteries Offices daily cycle of services in monasteries or conventsRefer to New Testament the glory of christ p27Gregorian Chantmelodies for the Mass and the OfficesGregory accredited in legend by having composed the entire collection of Gregorian chants by divine inspiration represented by a dove in paintings In reality Pope Gregory probably had very little to do with composition but he may have helped to standardize singing in liturgy developed schools for teaching chant etcOral vs written tradition Monks and nuns had to memorize hundreds or thousands of these pieces of music for services in worship Earliest manuscripts of Gregorian chant from 800s used as memory aids not documentationVariety of early chant dialects spanish french italian all latinThe Frankish EmpireFrankish King Charlemagne crowned as the first Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas 800Charlemagne insisted that chants be standardized across the church
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