Philosophy is a systematic examination of the rational grounds for our
Arguments and Logic
The Correspondence Theory of Truth: says a proposition is only ‘true’ if it is
how the world sees it.
1. A proposition is either true or false and it’s not necessary for
anyone to know its truth; nor is it necessary for it to be
possible to find out
2. A proposition is true or false regardless of anyone’s bias
beliefs (an exception is when the claims themselves are
questioning belief of knowledge ie. 1+1=2
Note: Do not confuse yourself between what is true or false with whether we can discover its truth or falsehood.
Knowledge vs. Belief: Knowledge requires evidence and ‘truth’ while beliefs are
simple true or false.
Fallacy of Equivocation: The act of using a word in two or more distinct ways.
Ex. Ray Charles is blind/ love is blind/ God is love/ Ray Charles is God
Sentence: A string of grammatical words put together
Proposition: What the sentence is trying to propose and express
Knowledge is a success term; use it strictly for what we know is ‘true’. If
something is apart of someone’s knowledge, it is true. But then maybe no knows
Premises: Sentences meant to persuade the reader in believing the conclusion
Argument: Set of statements including premises and conclusions. Two Types of Arguments (Deductive & Non-Deductive):
Deductively Valid Arguments: If all premises are true, conclusion must be true.
Note: Think of it as math… the premises are axioms (pre-disposed & accepted information and the conclusions are the theories.
It does not matter what the claims are about and if it is true or not but rather
the logical flow of the argument determines its validity.
• IF Chris is in BC, than he is in Canada.
Chris is in BC; he is in Canada.
• IF the moon is made out of cheese, than I can eat it.
The moon IS made of chees, so I can eat it.
Sound Arguments: Premises successfully support the conclusion, in a logical
form and it is true, \ conclusion is true.
Deductively Valid? Premises all True Premises not all True
Conclusion True yes yes