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Teleological Arguments.docx

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PHIL 101
Christopher Stephens

2. Teleological Arguments: are often referred to as ‘design arguments.’ Aquinas’ Design Argument P1: Objects are observed to be ordered and act for ends: some have minds, and some don’t. P2: An object that acts for a goal or end that doesn’t have a mind must be the result of someone with a mind (understanding). P3: So there’s a being with a mind/understanding that designed all mindless objects that act for an end. C2: Hence, God exists. Paley’s Design Argument: An analogy of watches with an ability to tell time compared to organisms with abilities in survival; can be considered an abductive inference. O: A watch with complex and intricate parts is found on a “heath” (beach). H1: Randomness Hypothesis H2: Design Hypothesis Likelihood Principle? ... ONE WOULD EXPECT H2 O2: Organisms have even more complex and intricate parts than watches. H3: Random Hypothesis H4: Design Hypothesis Only Game in Town Fallacy gives another possibility… H5: Evolution by Natural Selection (Not random because organisms are favoured by natural conditions more than others) Hume’s Criticism: Poking fun of Paley, uses induction and analogy proving Paley wrong Humanscirculatetheirblood  Humanscirculatetheirblood . Can’t just Dogscirculatetheirblood Plantscirculatetheirblood compare two things Hume says arguments are stronger or weaker relative to how close the analogue (humans) is to the target (dogs & plants). Hence this argument is very weak. I’ve observed X number of other Universes be designed Hence, our Universe was designed. X sample is zero! Lol Darwin’s Two-Part Theory (1) Tree of Life: All (almost) present day life and organisms are related (2) Natural Selection: This is the preliminary explanation for evolution 3 Conditions for Natural Selection i. Variation ii. Fitness iii. Heritability – necessary for traits passed down O1: Two students turn in word for word identical term papers H1: By chance, the two students independently wrote up identical papers (functional, by nature) H2: The students cheated from a common source on the Internet (arbitrary, same ancestry) Principle of Common Cause: If two things display intricate similarities, one would expect and believe the scenario with common cause (ancestry, arbitrary) as opposed to differing causes (functional, by chance). Ex. Gould and the Panda’s Thumb: O2
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