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Mind Body Problem P2

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PHIL 101
Christopher Stephens

Philosophy 101 Final Notes Distant Causation Argument: an argument for hard determinism P1: An agent performs an action freely, that agent is responsible for that action. P2: Agents are not responsible for actions caused by factors outside their control P3: Every action an agent performs is caused by factors outside of their control C: Hence, agents never act freely Soft determinists have new definitions for Free Action… Hume on Soft Determinism: An agent performs freely if it could have done otherwise if agent had wanted to. Their desires can be determined but as long as the actions emanate from the desires, the actions are free. Unfree: Human chained to the floor and couldn’t leave if he wanted to Free: Not chained and could leave if wanted to Objections to Hume: 1) Locke’s Locked Room: where a person wakes up in a small room that is locked from the outside, but he decides to stay voluntarily.  Intuitively, the agent is free, but since he couldn’t have done otherwise, Hume says he’s not free. 2) Compulsions: Imagine a kleptomaniac who has the desire to steal, but it’s compulsive. Even if they know that they may be caught and they may go to jail (although they don’t want to go to jail), they continue to steal. Their desire-forming mechanisms are not sensitive to the normal consideration of self-interest.  Intuitively, the agent is not free, but Hume says he is. Frankfurt on Soft Determinism: differing levels of desires and addiction st 1 Order Desires: Desire for X, do well in class, more cake, take meth Pg. 1 Philosophy 101 Final Notes nd 2 Order Desires: X itself is a desire about another. I wish I didn’t want meth. nd nd 2 Order Volition: The 2 order desire that is the strongest – most wanted st nd Wanton: Only has 1 Order Desires, no 2 volitions; true to many non- human animals. Wantons according to Frankfurt are not free Wanton Addict: Someone addicted to nicotine. Strongest desire to st smoke, 1 order desire is to smoke as well. Not free. st nd Unwilling Addict: Strongest 1 order desire is to smoke. 2 order desire and volition is to not want to smoke. Not free Willing Addict: 1 order desire is to smoke. 2 order desire is to want to smoke. These people are responsible for the their actions. The agent’s will is not free, but the agent itself is free. Personal Identity: What makes something what it is? What is the persistent condition of something? How much change can something undergo before it is something else? Two Ways in Being the ‘Same’: 1) Numerical or Strict Identity: There is only on
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