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University of British Columbia
PHIL 102
Dominic Mc Iver Lopes

1. method 2. george and jim 3. integrity one person’s modus ponens is another’s modus tollens modus ponens: if p then q ▯ ▯ eg. if alex is born in canada then alex is canadian p▯ ▯ ▯ alex is born in canada so q▯ ▯ ▯ so alex is canadian modus tollens: if p then q not q▯ ▯ ▯ alex isn’t canadian so not p▯ ▯ so alex wasn’t born in canada modus ponens: if C then K▯ ▯ if C (consequentialism is true) then K (it’s sometimes right to kill) C so K modus tollens: if C then K not K▯ ▯ ▯ it’s never right to kill so not C▯ ▯ so consequentialism isn’t true -this is not common ground between a consequentialist and a critic -these are two different ways of arguing so they don’t work with each other -shows what’s at stake -these examples are oversimplifications Williams paper George -he is a bad chemist and can’t find a job to support his kids and wife -an old colleague offers him a job developing chemical warfare -george is morally against chemical warfare -if he doesn’t take the job, another, better chemist will take the job and will work harder at it Jim -in Africa, comes along 10 people that will be shot by soldiers -these 10 people are innocent and are to be made an example of -the soldiers say that if Jim shoots one person, the rest could go free -these 10 people and other villagers are begging him to do it -a hardline consequentialist would say that George should take the job and Jim should shoot the person -Williams doesn’t take a stand on either case, but tries to argue against consequentialism -says that just considering the consequences (kill one person, develop the weapons) is wrong -deontologists would say you should disregard consequences and just follow your duty (don’t kill, don’t develop chemical weapons)
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