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Lecture

Grasshopper Philosophy

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 102
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
PHIL 102 – Games and the Good Life March 31 2014 Grasshopper Philosophy: • Nussbaum: Play: being able to laugh, to play, and to enjoy recreational activities o One of the important capabilities SUITS • The life of playing games is the best life to live • We’re all playing games without knowing it – in some literal sense of “game” o MostlyAmetaphor for describing parts of life (coercion, manipulating etc.)  Playing “little games” o But suits talks about it in a literal sense • Aresponse to the ant’s fable: o Grasshopper was “hopping about, chirping and singing to its heart’s content” o Ant was stored up food for winter o Grasshopper discovered in winter “it is best to prepare for the days of necessity” • It’s best just to play – Suits argument What is a Game? Game Variety • Ludwig Wittgenstein: there is nothing general you can say about games. But nothing that all games share. • Non-games: not playing the trombone because it’s not playing a game Caillois: Les Jeux et Les Hommes (1958) – to play a games is to do an activity that is: 1. Free, not obligatory 2. Circumscribed within limits of space and time, fixed in advance 3. Uncertain, so that its course cannot be pre-determined and player initiative is required 4. Unproductive in that it creates no goods or wealth PHIL 102 – Games and the Good Life 5. Governed by rules that suspend ordinary laws and behaviours and that must be followed by players 6. Make-believe – involving a special awareness of a second reality or of a free unreality, as against real life Agood theory should be: 1. Extensionally adequate – it is true of all games and only games 2. Informative – of ourselves etc. This theory of games does not undergird and grasshopper philosophy. Games have no make- believe or often produce wealth ATheory of Games : 1 pass To play a game, is to seek/achieve a goal using inefficient means. Goal orientated. o Golf – you need to use a club • Counterexamples o The point of considering counterexamples is to refine the theory or get a better one and to achieve informativeness. • In Poker, the goal is not to simply get the pot o It’s to win the game = to get the pot by following the rules and in a certain way o The rules and the goal are inseparable o In poker you can use the most efficient means to achieve that goal. ATheory of Games : 2 pass • Game players have many kinds of goals: simple to more complicated o To play the game o To pass the time, get fit o To win o To achieve a situation that the rules identify as winning • There are 2 kinds of means to achieve games’goals: unrestricted means vs means limited by the rules of the game… lusory means and non-lusory means PHIL 102 – Games and the Good Life o Having to do with games o E.g. lusory means in poker = get 2 cards etc. • There are 2 kinds of rules: rules of skill and strategy vs rules that must be followed to play the game… or rules of strategy. Constitutive rules: rules that must be followed in order for you to be playing the game. You must be following the rules to be part of the game. Lusory Goals: a goal that can be achieved only by following the constitutive rules of the game Prelusory Goals: a goal whose achievement is necessary to achieve the lusory goal but that can be achieved without following the constitutive rules of the game. • 100m dash: Prelusory Goal: pass over the finish line. Lusory Goal: following the rules to achieve the prelusory goal. First Pass: to play a game is to seek to achieve a goal using inefficient menas Pass 1.5: to play a game is to voluntarily attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles Secondary Pass: to play the game is: 1. To attempt to achieve a specific state of affairs [prelusory goal] 2. Using only means permitted by the rules [lusory means] 3. Where the rules prohibit use of more efficient in favour of less efficient means [constitutive rules] 4. Where the rules are accepted just because they make possible such activity [lusory attitude] (1) – (3) say that there are unnecessary obstacles to achieving the prelusory goal – not the lusory goal (4) Describes the reason one has for using less efficient means: to be able to play the game. Understanding the 2 pass Do all games really have prelusory goals o Prelusory goal: achievement is necessary to achieve the lusory goal but you don’t have to follow the constitutive rules • Chess cheats PHIL 102 – Games and the Good Life o It’s impossible to cheat at chess without the rules of chess • The institution of the game sets the prelusory goal of chess, which can be achieved illegally Do all games prescribe limited means to prelusory goals? • Ivan andAbdul • The mountain climber o Means are limited in principle They are only refinements of the theory. The means may be limited by principle. nd April 2 2014 ATheory of Games: Second pass - to play a game is… 1. To attempt to achieve a specific state of affairs = prelusory goal 2. Using only means permitted by the rules = lusory goal 3. Where the rules prohibit more efficient in favour of less efficient means = constitutive rules. Rules you must follow. Strategic rules – to win the game 4. And the rules are accepted just because they make playing the game possible = lusory attitude Luosry Goal: a goal that can be achieved only by following the constitutive rules of the game Prelusory Goal: a goal whose achievement is necessary to achieve the lusory goal… but that can be achieved without the following the consittuitve rules of the game Perlusory goal: a goal achieved by playing the game. E.g. play games to pass time/to get fit (sport) Grasshopper and Skepticus: do all games limit the means to prelusory goals? • The mountain climber: it’s a game • Prelusory goal: to get to the top of the mountain. • It seems that you are using the most efficient means to climb up. But (2) and (3) is not true. Thus it applies to only some games. o Means are limited in principle and not the rules.  The mountain climber won’t take the monorail PHIL 102 – Games and the Good Life  Following the rules! o This is connected to (4): we have a reason to accept the rules. Games of Make-Believe • Games of make-belie
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