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Lecture 4

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 120
Professor
Leslie Burkholder
Semester
Summer

Description
Week 4: Chapter 7 Section 1 (Categorical Statements) Intro: Categorical Syllogisms – express relationships between three classes of things. The statements in the argument are called Categorical Statement Categorical Statements All cats have whiskers - Cats: subject - Whiskers: predicate - if the predicate is not immediately obvious, has to add “things” or anything of equivalent Pure Forms (4 types) 1) Universal Affirmative (UA) – All S are P: the entire membership of the subject class is included within the predicate class. It affirms something about all members of S. 2) Universal Negative (UN) – No S are P: the entire membership of the subject class is excluded from the predicate class. It denies something about all members of S. 3) Particular Affirmative (PA) - Some S are P: at least one member of the subject class is included within the predicate class. It affirms something about only a portion of the membership of S. 4) Particular Negative (PN) – Some S are not P: at least one member of the subject class is excluded from the predicate class. It denies something about only a portion of the membership. Things to consider when interpreting: 1) Be careful to distinguish between the statement that excludes some S from the class of P and the statement that includes some S within the class of non-P  Some S are not P is a PN statement  Some S are non-P is a PA statement 2) Person, things and places designated by proper names should all be interpreted as referring to an entire class. Statements in which they are subjects will, therefore, be expressed as universal statements 3) UN statement is not properly expressed as All S are not P because such statement is ambiguous  UN: Could mean that all S are excluded from the class of P = no S are P  PN:Could mean that it is not the case that all S are included in the class of P = some S aren’t P  So, it is safer to interpret statement of the All S are not P variety as PN
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