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Lecture

Chapter 14 Lecture Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 100
Professor
Christopher Erickson

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cc


-pThe term nation can be distinguished from state because it refers to a people rather
than to a formal, territorial entity
-pNations are difficult to define, but they have a collective identity based on such factors
as a shared history and culture
-pAlthough people often assume an identity between nation and states ʹ and ͚national
self-determination͛ has often been upheld as a key principle ʹ in reality, virtually no
state in the world encompasses a single, homogenous nation
-pThis is obviously true of cast countries like the USA, China and India, but it also applies
to Papua New Guinea, where nearly 1000 different languages are spoken

-pStates of a kind have been in existence ever since human groups first developed settled
agricultural practices, and a way of organizing themselves for self-protection
-pIt isn͛t surprising that Western-based scholars of IR have focused their attention on the
development of states in the eastern Mediterranean ʹ ͚the cradle of Western
Civilizations͛
-pAs well as Ancient Athens and Rome, scholars have examined the earliest known
empires which were situated around the river systems of the Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile
-pAfrica also produced a number of empires, like the Mali empire which thrived between
the 13th and 17th centuries
-pOne of the most extensive and durable empires was the Chinese, which lasted from the
18th century BC to the 19th century

-pThe year 1500 is conventionally taken to mark the beginning of the modern age
-pAt that time, the Chinese empire was far more advanced than European states, in terms
of technology, military power and bureaucratic efficiency
-pIn Europe, a key milestone in the development of the modern state was the 
 1648), which brought the Thirty Years͛ War Catholics vs. Protestants) to an
end
apCatholic princes will have catholic states
-pThis upheld the right of rulers to organise their domestic affairs free from outside
interference
!"
-pThe theory of sovereignty has two aspects ʹ  and #
-pOne view can be summed up as ͚autonomy in foreign policy and exclusive competence
in internal affairs͛ Evans and Newnham, 1998)
-pIf each state can run without the interference from other states
apThis relationship between states is a relationship marked by anarchy
·pThere is no state above the state, there is no higher authority
-pThe idea of sovereignty in external affairs has given rise to the idea that states live in a
condition of ͚anarchy͛ or a ͚state of nature͛), with no higher authority capable of
governing their relations
-pThe best-known theorist of sovereignty is $$1588-1979), who was alive
at the time of the Treaty of Westphalia
-pobbes believed that without an internal sovereign, life would be chronically insecure.
This idea has been extended to the international sphere by ͚realist͛ theorists of IR
%  
-pA key development in the history after the European state after 1648 was the Î
!% of 1789
-pRevolutionary ideology argued that the French nation was synonymous with the state
-pThe French Revolution thus gave rise to a surge in  feeling across Europe
-pThe ͚c% ͛, which lasted from 1815 until the mid-1850s, was an attempt by
European elites to keep some control over the forces unleashed by the Revolution
apConcert of Europe ʹ officials from different states discuss with one another
-powever, nationalist feeling saw the creation of ͚&'like Greece
1830), Belgium 1831), Italy 1861), and Germany 1871)
c
-pImperialism
-pOne state having extensive dominance over another
-pDifferent forms
ap"" ʹ explicit exploitation of colonial holding
·pBelgium, Germany, Portugal
ap ʹ some attempt to incorporate the colonial holding into the
central state
·pFrance, USSR
ap% ʹ local leader as intermediaries of colonial control
·pUK, USA

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Description
CHAPTER 14 LECTURE NOTES Politics Across Borders Nations and StatesThe term nation can be distinguished from state because it refers to a people rather than to a formal territorial entityNations are difficult to define but they have a collective identity based on such factors as a shared history and cultureAlthough people often assume an identity between nation and statesand national selfdetermination has often been upheld as a key principlein reality virtually no state in the world encompasses a single homogenous nationThis is obviously true of cast countries like the USA China and India but it also applies to Papua New Guinea where nearly 1000 different languages are spoken States and international systemsStates of a kind have been in existence ever since human groups first developed settled agricultural practices and a way of organizing themselves for selfprotectionIt isnt surprising that Westernbased scholars of IR have focused their attention on the development of states in the eastern Mediterraneanthe cradle of Western CivilizationsAs well as Ancient Athens and Rome scholars have examined the earliest known empires which were situated around the river systems of the Tigris Euphrates and NileAfrica also produced a number of empires like the Mali empire which thrived between thththe 13 and 17 centuriesOne of the most extensive and durable empires was the Chinese which lasted from the thth18 century BC to the 19 century The State and ModernityThe year 1500 is conventionally taken to mark the beginning of the modern ageAt that time the Chinese empire was far more advanced than European states in terms of technology military power and bureaucratic efficiencyIn Europe a key milestone in the development of the modern state was the Treaty of Westphalia 1648 which brought the Thirty Years War Catholics vs Protestants to an endo Catholic princes will have catholic states This upheld the right of rulers to organise their domestic affairs free from outside interference
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