Class Notes (809,510)
Canada (493,754)
Psychology (2,017)
PSYC 100 (32)

PSYC 100 NOTES CH 9 and CH 10.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

University of British Columbia
PSYC 100
Catherine Rawn

Chapter 9: Intelligence and IQ Generate a definition of intelligence Intelligence: A mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations List the effects of loneliness on health - Bad for health (like the need for food and water to survive) - Can lead to accidents, suicide and heart disease Describe some of the symptoms and treatment goals for Asperger’s syndrome Symptoms and treatment goals for Asperger’s Syndrome - To become more willing and able to interact with others - Learn the word but not the function of the word - Cannot keep track of several conversations o Not sure when to jump in - Cannot read people’s emotions - Response isn’t very quick - Cannot connect with other people well - Do not want to interact with people but excited to have company - Wants to do his or own thing Explain how rapid eye movements are helping researchers understand Asperger’s Syndrome Eye movements help researchers understand Asperger’s Syndrome - For example, in the clip, the guy was watching a movie and he was not focusing on the action on people’s faces but on the light that was swinging in the room o That was the basic research and experiments o People with Asperger’s aren’t attending to the interpersonal; facial cues that people without Asperger’s are, that’s the difficult part about Asperger’s. o Use of the eye tracker to discover if people with Asperger’s are attending the right social cues in the same way as people without that syndrome o Might be applied later, but for now investigating basic processes - The difference between applied and basic research is applied has immediate right now use Compare and contrast the g-factor and multiple intelligences On perspective: it’s a single overall ability - General intelligence (g) - Underlies specific mental abilities - Measured by every task on intelligence test - All the sub categories are facets that all measure (g) - (g): o Spatial o Verbal o Reasoning o Memory o Others - Ex. SATs (Math, history, English all measure SAT score) What is spatial ability? - One way to measure is mental rotation tasks - Useful for sense of direction, reading maps, interpreting radiology results, and building structures Supporting evidence - Moderate- high correlations among facets o 0.30-0.70 o People who score high on one facet tend to score high on other facets - Factor analysis o Statistical technique o Items/ different test across multiple facets tend to cluster in one measure, that is to measure general intelligence but with different tests - Strong performance predictor o Result on the given tests can determine how successful they are academically but also in job performance, particularly jobs that require mental abilities. Also predict health behavior o (g) Can predict what kind of job you get. Once you get the job, it’s motivation that keeps you going  Self regulate  Control actions o (g) Is not about performance - Common Analogy: Athleticism o Decathlon and heptathlon (g)  The one with the most points after the 10 or 7 events is classified as the highest general all rounded athlete  Not best at only hurdles but best at all the events o Michael Jordan  Retired from NBA, went to MLB then back to NBA because he was not good at baseball  Expected some general athletic ability  But wouldn’t be perfect predictor of individual performances  He is a decent all around athlete but he’s really good at basketball not baseball  Specific facets o Usain Bolt’s abilities  Sprinter  Similar to the idea that separate specific abilities  We expect him to sprint the fastest but not good at marathons Another perspective: Multiple Intelligences 1. Sternberg’s Triachic Theory of Intelligence a. Analytical (Lisa Simpson) - Most similar to (g) - Book smarts - Logical reasoning - Traditional intelligence test - Only one right answer - Academic problem solving b. Practical (Bart Simpson) - Real world problems - Social skills - Street smarts - Problems that do not have clear definition but have multiple answers - Figure out along the way with what you have - Go with the flow c. Creative (Barney Stinson) - Generating novel and effective ways to answers - Creation of symphony - Adapting to new situations Iclicker: Starts a competitive points program to get teams of volunteers to come out and sort food  Need someone who is practical (points program) and creative (creative way to problem solve) 2. Gardner’s 8 Intelligences  Three common (analytical) o Verbal- linguistic o Logical- mathematical o Visual- spatial  Others uncommon o Naturalist- recognize, identify and understand plants, animals and other living things o Bodily- kinesthetic o Musical o Intrapersonal- high insight of yourself o Interpersonal- social skills  All have potential for activation o But through some experiences, may have the opportunity or not o Ex. Never exposed to a musical instrument then it will be difficult develop musical ability Evidence for Multiple Intelligences  Supporting evidence o Selective brain damage can affect some intelligence but not others. It can maintain some intelligence. o Savant Syndrome (cannot read, write or drive)  Damage to left hemisphere. He can sculpt sculptures without looking at what he’s sculpting really well but cannot talk very well. Was dropped on his head when he was young Criticism of Multiple Intelligences  Autistic savants are higher on (g) than other autistic people that do not have savant ability  Talent catalogue; doesn’t consist of all mental abilities  General intelligence score predicts performance Discuss the importance of defining intelligence carefully Why all the fuss about definition of intelligence  Defining mental retardation o Low intelligence test score (<70) and difficulty adjusting to normal demands or independent living  Diagnosis of mental retardation affects o Eligibility for special education services o Family’s eligibility for government support o Not criminally responsible on account of mental illness - Define intelligence as multiple intelligences and measure them. These are implications - They are very serious, part of why intelligence has been so heavily o Lots of research done to it, allows distinction and decisions - Strong evidence suggesting (g) and measures of (g) as useful predictor - Not a lot of reason and evidence for multiple intelligence What do you know about intelligence? 1. Multiple Intelligence is NOT the most widely accepted view of intelligence in the scientific community a. General intelligence (g) is more widely accepted b. There are not many ways that you can measure it 2. People with higher IQ scores live longer than people with lower ID scores 3. Exceptionally creative architects, mathematicians, scientists, and engineers usually score about the same on intelligence tests than do their less creative peers a. This tells us that intelligence, once you get the job, it’s not intelligence distinguishing great success, it’s other things like creativity and motivation 4. Highly educated people die with more synapses than their less educated peers a. Learning is about widening networks in your brain so they do die with more synapses than your peers 5. Today’s Canadians score higher on IQ tests than Canadians did in 1930s 6. As adopted children grow older, their intelligence scores become more similar to those of their biological parents than to those of their adoptive parents a. Clues to heritability b. The adoptive kids tend to gravitate towards their biological parents’ IQ. It’s a trend, not a destiny 7. Aptitude score is NOT a much better predictor of university performance of men than it is for women a. Very few differences between men and women when measuring intelligence Food For Thought  Is a deficiency in multiple intelligences grounds for disability distinction? (People who cannot read sheet music) o NO! We have meaningful reasons when testing intelligences  What is the fairest, most consistent and accurate way to measure intelligence? Describe how intelligence (g) is measured How do we measure intelligence? 1. Examine Brain a. Higher intelligence scores positively correlated with i. Number of synapses ii. Grey matter (neural bodies) volume iii. White matter (axons and dendrites) volume iv. Memory retrieval speed v. Perception speed (shapes) vi. Reaction time All correlated to IQ scores on paper and pencil. It is the most common. How is the research about intelligence and the brain limited so far? - We don't know why these relationships are occurring - We don’t know if intelligence is causing neurological characteristics or vice versa - We don’t know if something else is causing both high intelligence scores and neurological characteristics o Because these are just simply correlations, we cannot tell directionality we don’t know why and we don’t know if something else like a third variable is causing both of these things to happen - It is challenge and new research, cannot just randomly assign intelligence 2. Intelligence Tests a. Asses individual’s mental aptitudes compare with others using numerical scores b. Early intelligence tests - Goal: to identify those who need extra help - Binet and Simon (late 1800s , France): Mental Age - Old calculation  Mental Age/Chronological Age X 100= IQ  IQ of 100= performing at your age level  100 is the anchor/ average number Flynn Effect  The finding that people’s has tended to increase over a period of time (adjusting for differences in tests) o In the last ten years it has been leveling off  The WW1 test DOES NOT measure what it says it is measuring o It’s not VALID! It had nothing to do with intelligence  Cultural knowledge had a lot do to with the IQ tests. So immigrants tended to not do very well  Modern tests try to get away from it (cultural bias) Modern Intelligence Tests  Weschler Adult Intelligence Test (WAIS) o WISC (Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children)  Attempting to measure (g)  Can use response to avoid culture-specific knowledge Other Modern Examples  Aptitude tests: How well will you perform? o SAT, GRE- General, LSAT, MCAT  Achievement tests: How much do you know? o GRE- Psychology, course exams How would you measure multiple intelligences?  No strong research yet o Need instruments to measure it, no data so far  Crucial for arguing that they exist o Need to show they are statistically independent intelligences o Need to statistically distinguish between them and (g) Explain three ways to evaluate an intelligence test 1. Reliability- is a person’s score repeatable? Consistent?  Ways to evaluate reliability o Same people, two different versions of the same test o Scores on one half vs. score on the second half o Same people, the same test but at different times  WAIS and other s are highly reliable in adulthood (r= 0.90+) 2. Validity- do these tests really measure intelligence?  Content validity o How to define intelligence? o Need to assess all of it, does our test capture all of what it needs to be intelligent and nothing more o Ex. Ratemyprof- does it capture all of what it means to be a good prof  Current validity o Do people with high scores on the test behave in ways we’d expect them to, it they really were highly intelligent o Are they acting in ways in which it matches up with their result 3. Standardization- what does an intelligence score mean?  Issue of standardization  Only means something in reference to others  Give 1000s of people the test, plot their scores then let us figure out what is a “normal” and rare score Interpret what a person’s intelligence score means numerically and practically The Normal Distribution of Intelligence Scores  About 95% of all people fall within 30-100 points  About 68% of all people fall within 15 points above or below (standard deviation)  130 points a lot higher that normal  If in the 0.1% range then they cannot care for themselves  <70 points mental retardation  MEAN= 100  SRANDARD DEVIATION= 15 What Explains differences in intelligences? What is the difference? Asperger’s Syndrome (Sheldon Cooper)  Difficulty developing social relationships and communication skills  Usually string narrow interests  Repetitive behavior Autism  Difficulty developing social relationships and communication skills  Usually string narrow interests  Repetitive behavior  *Below average IQ (creating learning difficulties)  *Language delay Controversy just being resolved right now DSM5: Asperger’s Syndrome currently considered on the autism “spectrum” Does it matter what someone scores on an intelligence test? NO Then why do we still use them? “We will always need some way of making intelligent decisions about people. We’re not all the same; we have different skills and abilities. What’s wrong is thinking of intelligence as a fixed innate ability, instead of something that develops in a context” -Diane Halpern, Past President of American Psychological Association Summarize the contributions of genes and environmental factors on intelligence Where does Intelligence come from? Genetics vs. Environment  Intelligence is highly heritable o About 50% of differences among people are attributable to genes  So that means 50% of differences among people ARE NOT attributable to genes o Environment o Gene and environment intereactions Iclicker: Suggests that intelligence is entirely heritable If monozygotic twins score the same and dizygotic twins scored differently Monozygotic- same egg, almost identical genes Dizygotic- different egg, genes like siblings Can genetic effects explain racial differences in IQ scores?  Example of racial difference o 101 Canadian First Nations Aboriginal people o 131 Canadian Forces military recruits o Verbal cognitive ability measures: 88vs 106 (SIG) o Spatial ability measures: 95 vs. 99 (not sig) o Inductive reasoning measure: 91 vs. 100 (not sig)  In brief: NO  Between group heritability o No evidence genes explain differences across races (or sexe
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 100

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.