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Psychology 101: Lecture 4

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PSYC 101
Michael De Souza

Lecture #4/5 - September 12/14/17, 2012 September-12-12 11:43 AM SLIDE #3 • Dark history of research and experiments (Nazi medical research through camps) • No international legal code governing research ethics at the time (1940's) • Interested in twins, transplants, freezing (temperatures) and malaria SLIDE #4 • Nuremburg Code (1947): first set of international principles that protected test participants ○ Informed consent, human research (animal based), qualified personnel, avoid pain/death ○ Most important, injury and death must be avoided • Declaration of Helsinki (1964): created ramifications behind the Nuremburg Code ○ In order to receive funding, these rules and regulations must be followed ○ Ethics and violations will be taken very seriously • Belmont Report (1979): respect for persons (given people the right to decide to participate) ○ Beneficence, the benefits must outweigh the risks of the study ○ Research can yield benefits, but these research efforts be distributed SLIDE #5 • Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) established where research is conducted ○ There are members with specific roles within the IRB ○ Serious experiments (drug trials etc.) must have an extensive review to get approval  Must be updated annually, including findings, harms etc.  If the researcher does not disclose all known information, there are ramifications SLIDE #6 • Many cases where the protections of protocols were broken after the codes were in place SLIDE #7 • Tukegee Syphilis Study: told African Americans they had bad blood ○ Told they would receive free health care, but only wanted to see how Syphilis progressed ○ There was a lack of consent and most were deceived ○ Many people ended up dying over the 30-40 year study term ○ Participants were not given penicillin that could have helped them SLIDE #8 • Witchita Jury Case (1953): taped juries during deliberations ○ Compromised the integrity of the justice system (infraction of privacy) ○ Lack of consent, were just studied (invasion of privacy) ○ Eventually banned in the USA in 1956 SLIDE #9 • Milgram's O
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