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Chpt. 11 Thinking Section.docx

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PSYC 101
Barbara Cox

Chpt. 11 Thinking Cognition- mental activity associated with processing, understanding and communication info Cognitive Psychology  the study of these mental activities:  Concept formation  problem solving  decision making  judgement formation  study of both logical and illogical thinking Reasoning is Problem Solving- starting with a set of facts or premises  Deductive reasoning- what, if any, conclusions necessarily follow?  Inductive reasoning- what is the probability that those conclusions (or hypotheses) are true? Convergent thinking- all of the data/ info lead to one correct answer Divergent thinking- data can be combined in different ways to come to different answers, thought to be one of the measures of creativity  i.e. how many different uses can you find for a break (other than building things)? Problem Solving  Insight- Sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem  Contrasts with strategy-based solutions  Ah-ha moment  Wolfgang Kohler’s experiment on insight by a chimpanzee  Chimpanzee had a moment of insight where he piled up boxes to reach bananas high up, which he couldn’t reach before Remote Associates Test- a task that gives the feeling of insight when you solve each problem i.e. what word goes with stool, powder, ball -> foot Solving problems of “logical form”  Logic is a formal system of rules of inference (algorithms) for evaluating the validity of arguments that draw conclusions from premises  2 types of logic problems: conditional or categorical  Conditional- premises: if P, then Q, P is true, conclusion: Q is true  Categorical- premises: all A are B, some Bare C, conclusion: some A are C  Algorithm -methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem  contrasts with the usually speedier – but also more error-prone use of heuristics  Heuristic- rule of thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgements & solve problems efficiently  Can be subjected to bias and error due to use of shortcuts which must emphasize some info and ignore other info  Such errors can affect an form of reasoning  Sometimes we are unaware we are using heuristics Thinking  Concept- a mental grouping of similar objects, events or people  Countries  Animals  Minerals  Organized in hierarchies, from bigger to smaller categories i.e. animals divided into vertebrates & invertebrates, so on  Simple concept type meaning there is only one feature or one rule  Conjunctive concept type meaning there is more than one feature and all must be present (“and” statement)  Disjunctive concept type meaning there is more than one critical feature and any one must be present (“or” statement)  Negative disjunctive concept type meaning there is more than one critical feature but one of the features must not be present (“but not” statement)  Prototype-the best example of category  Matchin
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