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Chapter 7.docx

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PSYC 101
Catherine( Cathy) Rankin

Chapter 7- Learning and Behavior Learning 1. an adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behavior is changed by experience with the environment 2. a relatively permanent change in the part of the nervous system that underlies an observable behavior that results from experience with the environment  As conditions change, we learn new behaviors and eliminate old ones  Inferred, not observed directly ** Not all changes in behavior are caused by learning; physical/mental condition (fear, fatigue, etc.) also important **Learning doesn’t always elicit change in behavior (learn how to change a tire, behavior only changes when have to change a flat tire) Performance- the behavioral change produced by internal changes brought about by learning  Evidence that learning has occurred (imperfect, since other factors influence behavior) Orienting Response- any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose) toward the source of a novel stimulus Habituation- The simplest form of learning; learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly  Humphrey- placed snails on a glass plate, tapped sharply on platewith each successive tap, the probability of reacting to the tap decreased  Makes sense evolutionarily; responding to a stimulus over and over again wastes time and energy  Rankin- experimented with nematoda (worm), responded like snails didneurons that respond to mechanical stimulus of the tap, but worms also use same neural pathway to withdraw from heat  Rankin showed that could produce habituation to tap-elicited withdrawal without affecting withdrawal to heat stimulusworms had to learn something Short-term habituation  If tap a snail’s shell over and over again until withdrawal response ceases, and tap again after couple of days, withdrawal response reoccurs Long-term habituation  Capable for organisms with more complex nervous systems  Ex. hunting dog may be frightened by first couple times it hears a shotgun, but soon learns not to respond to the blast Short-term vs Long-term  Pattern of experience/ different neural systems  When stimuli is massed into quick repetitions, habituation is rapid but short- term  When stimuli is presented in small groups spaced over time, habituation is slower but long-term Classical Conditioning- The process by which a response normally elicited by one stimulus (the unconditional stimulus) comes to be controlled by another stimulus (the conditional stimulus) as well  Begins with a reflex/automatic response  Ex. Watching a horror movie- when scary music plays, one anticipates a surprise, something to pop out of the shadows  First time watched scary movie, didn’t pay much attention to music, until something frightening burst out on screenelicited a defensive, startle reaction  Sudden sights and sounds can cause an automatic, unlearned reaction Our movie theatre fear has been classically conditioned to certain musical motifs that were once neutral sounds Pavlov’s Discovery  Noticed that dogs would drool in anticipation of food  Designed experiments to discover why they were salivating before being given the opportunity to eat bell becomes the conditioned stimulus Unconditonal Stimulus (UCS)-stimulus, such as food that naturally elicits a reflexive response, such as salivation Unconditional Response (UCR)-response, such as salivation, that is naturally elicited by the UCS Conditional Stimulus-stimulus that, because of repeated association with the UCS, eventually elicits a conditional response (CR) Conditional Response (CR)-response elicited by the CS Biological Significance of Classical Conditioning 1. The ability to learn to recognize stimuli that predict the occurrence of an important event allows the learner to make the appropriate response faster and more effectively Ex. buzz of wasp over your head may make you duck and avoid getting stung 2. Stimuli that were previously unimportant acquire properties of the important stimuli with which they have been associated with/ a neutral stimuli becomes desirable when associated with a desirable stimulus and vice versa Ex. respond different to a pile of money than to a pile of napkins Acquisition- time during which a CR first appears and increases in frequency/ increase in the intensity of behavior if the CS is presented alone  Strength of CR depends on the intensity of the UCS and the timing of the CS+UCS  The more intense the UCS, the stronger the CR generally is  Classical Conditioning occurs fastest when the CS occurs shortly after the UCS (optimal delay of 0.5 seconds) Extinction-the elimination of a response that occurs when the CS is repeated presented without being followed by the UCS  Eventually eliminates the CR  If neither stimulus is presented, extinction will not occur  Participant must learn that the CS no longer predicts the occurrence of the UCS Spontaneous Recovery- after an interval of time, the reappearance of a response that had previously been extinguished Stimulus Generalization-In classical conditioning, CR’s elicited by stimuli that resemble the CS used in training  Ex. Pavlov discovered that once dog learned to salivate when it heard a bell, it would salivate when hearing a different tone or when it heard a buzzer Discrimination-In classical conditioning, the appearance of a CR when one stimulus is presented (the CS+) but not another (the CS-)  An organism can be taught to distinguish between similar but different stimuli  Discrimination trainingusing two CSs, one always followed by UCS, the other never followed by UCS  Response to CS+ will continue to be elicited, responses to CS- will become less and less Conditional Emotional Responses  Classical conditioning plays a role in the development of likes/dislikes, or in the emotional reaction to other stimuli  Phobias- unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations, such as insects, animals, or enclosed spaces Conditioned Taste Aversion  One trial learning  Can be a long CS-US interval  Retained for a long time  Adaptive for organism searching for food  “prepared to learn” ex. bird becomes sick after eating a butterflywon’t eat it anymore in future What is learned in Classical Conditioning  for classical conditioning to occur, the CS must be a reliable predictor of the UCS (ex. movie theatre example, why don’t the other stimuli become a CS for anxiety)  A neural stimuli only becomes a CS when o The CS regularly occurs prior to the presentation of the UCS o The CS does not regularly occur when the UCS is absent  Blocking- the prevention of or attenuation in learning that occurs to a neutral CS when it is conditioned in the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus Experimental (blocking) Control group group Conditioning phase 1 CS1 (tone)UCS (food) CS3 (click)UCS (food) Conditioning phase 2 CS1 (tone)+ CS2 CS1 (tone)+CS2 (light)UCS (food) (light)UCS (food) Test phase CS1 (tone) presented CS1 (tone) presented aloneCR aloneCR CS2 (light) presented CS2 (light) presented alone no CR aloneCR  The new stimulus, CS2, doesn’t add any new information about the occurrence of the UCS, it is already predicted by the presentation of CS1 (only if something about the UCS changed at the time CS2 was introduced) Classical conditioning provides the what and when of future events  ‘What’ allows animal to learn that a particular event is about to occur o Hollis-subordinate male gouramis were isolated, conditioned by pairing light with delivery of food, fish rapidly learned the relationship between light and food & showed feeding behaviors when light was turned on o when placed in tank with dominant male, and light switched on, first behavior of conditioned fish was not a feeding response, but submissive response not the UCR that determines the CR, but the memory of what the CS predicts o Hillard-examined sexual behaviors in male Japanese quail (satiated and deprived condition)  ‘When’ about the timing of events o inhibitory conditional response- a response tendency conditioned to a signal that predicts the absence of the UCS o excitatory conditional response-A response tendency conditioned to a signal that the UCS was about to occur (Pavlovs) o Cole and Miller- trained rats in a conditioned procedure in which a backward CS (CSb) followed a UCS, then after training the UCS was eliminated, and a forward CS (CSf) was presented before CSbtemporal integration occurred, rats demonstrated an excitatory CR Operant Conditioning- a form of learning in which behavior is affected by its consequences, f
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