PSYC 101 Lecture Notes - Striatum, Temporal Lobe, Stroop Effect

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13 Mar 2013
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Chapter 8:Memory
Memory- The cognitive processes of encoding, storing, and retrieving information
Encoding- The process by which sensory information is converted into a form that
an be used by the brain’s memory system
Storage- The process of maintaining information in memory
Retrieval- The active processes of locating and using stored information
Ex. Choosing a restaurant
Encoding the location, type of food (and its attributes)
Storing the information
Retrieving it when you’re looking for a place to eat
Dual trace Theory (Hebb)- the brain remembers information in two different ways
(active/latent)
Information is active bc neurons were firing continuously, repeated
firingstrengthens the synaptic efficiency of the neuron feedback
circuitleads to structural changes in neurons involvedstops when firing
ceases
Supported by LTP (long term potentialization)
Atkinson and Shiffrin
Sensory memory- memory in which representations of the physical features
of a stimulus are stored for very brief durations
Short-term memory- the immediate memory for stimuli that have just been
perceived (limited in capacity (7+/- 2 chunks of info) and duration (less than
20 seconds)
Long-term memory- memory in which information is represented on a
permanent or near-permanent basis
o occurs because of a permanent physical change in the brain
Modal-model of memory
Sensory inputSensory memoryShort-term memoryLong-term memory
Sensory Memory
Iconic Memory: A form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a
scene that has just been perceived; visible persistence
Sperling: 9 letter iconic memory study
The random letters would then be projected onto a screen for around one-
twentieth of a second. The participants then would recall as many letters as
they could. Most participants could recall four or five letters, although they
said that they had seen all the letters.
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Sperling concluded that all the letters had been registered, but the memory
had faded too quickly for all of the letters to be recalled
He sounded a tone just after the letters were flashed onto the screen, and
participant had been instructed to recite the letters in the top row if they
heard a high tone, letters in the middle row for a medium tone and letters in
the bottom row for a low tone.
Participants were able to recall the letters in the row indicated by the tone
used by Sperling without any problems, suggesting that the iconic memory
did indeed register all twelve letters.
Echoic Memory: A form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been
perceived
When we hear a word pronounced we hear individual sounds, one at a time
Holds a representation of the initial sounds until the entire word has been
heard
Recent, ‘white noise’ patterns indicate it can last for 20 seconds
Short-Term/Working Memory
**More than just a simple way station between perception and long-term memory
Information can enter short-term memory from sensory memory and long-term
memory
Ex. multiply 7 by 19
Information about the request enters short-term memory through sensory
memory
Performing the task, however, requires long-term memory info (what’s
multiply? What is 7, 19?)
When info is recalled, is first moved from long-term to short-term memory,
not directly
short-term memory contains information when we are trying to encode that info
and when we are trying to retrieve it
Working Memory- Memory for new info and info retrieved from long-term
memory; also known as short-term memory
The fact that short-term memory contains new info, and info retrieved from
long-term memory
Primary effect- tendency to remember initial info (when memorizing a list of
words, evidenced by better recall of early words)
Due to fact that words earlier in a list have the opportunity to be rehearsed
more (rehearsal permits them to be stored in long-term memory)
More and more wordsfull short-term memory- later words in competition
for rehearsal time
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Recency effect- tendency to remember later info (when memorizing a list of words,
evidenced by better recall of last words)
Words at end are last to be heardstill available in short-term memory
Limits of Working Memory
Accuracy of recall determined by the length of the interval between
presentation of the _______ and when the recall was requested (approx 20 sec)
With unexpected distractions, working memory seriously disrupted (Muter)
Chunking- process in which information is simplified by rules, which make it
easily remembered once the rules are learned
limit of short-term memory is 7 chunks, but not necessarily 7 individual
items; depends on the particular rules we use to organize it
ex. 1357924680 is easy to retain in short-term memorywe can remember
a rule better than 10 independent and meaningless numbers
capacity for short-term memory depends on how much meaning the
information has
Baddeley: working memory consists of several components
1. maintains verbal info
2. retains memories of visual stimuli
3. stores general info
Phonological short-term memory- short term memory for verbal info (sound and
voice)
visually presented info gets encoded acoustically
Conrad: briefly showed people lists of six letters/made them write them
down
Errors made were acoustic, not visual (B instead of V (sound similar) more
prevalent than F instead of T (look familiar)
may be produced by activity in the auditory system, circuits of neurons in the
auditory association complex
**However, also…
Subvocal articulation- an unvoiced speech utterance (thinking without saying
something)
though no actual movement occurs, possible that activity occurs in neural circuits
of brain that normally control speech
ex. when we imagine saying something, the ‘voice in our head’ controlled by activity
of neurons in the motor association complex
**Phonological codes stored in long term memory help to strengthen the rehearsed
information
Evidence of phonological short term memory
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Document Summary

Memory- the cognitive processes of encoding, storing, and retrieving information. Encoding- the process by which sensory information is converted into a form that an be used by the brain"s memory system. Storage- the process of maintaining information in memory. Retrieval- the active processes of locating and using stored information. Encoding the location, type of food (and its attributes) Retrieving it when you"re looking for a place to eat. Dual trace theory (hebb)- the brain remembers information in two different ways (active/latent) Information is active bc neurons were firing continuously, repeated firing strengthens the synaptic efficiency of the neuron feedback circuit leads to structural changes in neurons involved stops when firing ceases. Sensory memory- memory in which representations of the physical features of a stimulus are stored for very brief durations. Short-term memory- the immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived (limited in capacity (7+/- 2 chunks of info) and duration (less than.

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