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Chapter 8.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Catherine( Cathy) Rankin

Chapter 8:Memory Memory- The cognitive processes of encoding, storing, and retrieving information Encoding- The process by which sensory information is converted into a form that an be used by the brain’s memory system Storage- The process of maintaining information in memory Retrieval- The active processes of locating and using stored information Ex. Choosing a restaurant  Encoding the location, type of food (and its attributes)  Storing the information  Retrieving it when you’re looking for a place to eat Dual trace Theory (Hebb)- the brain remembers information in two different ways (active/latent)  Information is active bc neurons were firing continuously, repeated firingstrengthens the synaptic efficiency of the neuron feedback circuitleads to structural changes in neurons involvedstops when firing ceases  Supported by LTP (long term potentialization) Atkinson and Shiffrin  Sensory memory- memory in which representations of the physical features of a stimulus are stored for very brief durations  Short-term memory- the immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived (limited in capacity (7+/- 2 chunks of info) and duration (less than 20 seconds)  Long-term memory- memory in which information is represented on a permanent or near-permanent basis o occurs because of a permanent physical change in the brain Modal-model of memory Sensory inputSensory memoryShort-term memoryLong-term memory Sensory Memory Iconic Memory: A form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just been perceived; visible persistence  Sperling: 9 letter iconic memory study  The random letters would then be projected onto a screen for around one- twentieth of a second. The participants then would recall as many letters as they could. Most participants could recall four or five letters, although they said that they had seen all the letters. Sperling concluded that all the letters had been registered, but the memory had faded too quickly for all of the letters to be recalled  He sounded a tone just after the letters were flashed onto the screen, and participant had been instructed to recite the letters in the top row if they heard a high tone, letters in the middle row for a medium tone and letters in the bottom row for a low tone.  Participants were able to recall the letters in the row indicated by the tone used by Sperling without any problems, suggesting that the iconic memory did indeed register all twelve letters. Echoic Memory: A form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived  When we hear a word pronounced we hear individual sounds, one at a time  Holds a representation of the initial sounds until the entire word has been heard  Recent, ‘white noise’ patterns indicate it can last for 20 seconds Short-Term/Working Memory **More than just a simple way station between perception and long-term memory Information can enter short-term memory from sensory memory and long-term memory Ex. multiply 7 by 19  Information about the request enters short-term memory through sensory memory  Performing the task, however, requires long-term memory info (what’s multiply? What is 7, 19?)  When info is recalled, is first moved from long-term to short-term memory, not directly short-term memory contains information when we are trying to encode that info and when we are trying to retrieve it Working Memory- Memory for new info and info retrieved from long-term memory; also known as short-term memory  The fact that short-term memory contains new info, and info retrieved from long-term memory Primary effect- tendency to remember initial info (when memorizing a list of words, evidenced by better recall of early words)  Due to fact that words earlier in a list have the opportunity to be rehearsed more (rehearsal permits them to be stored in long-term memory)  More and more wordsfull short-term memory- later words in competition for rehearsal time Recency effect- tendency to remember later info (when memorizing a list of words, evidenced by better recall of last words)  Words at end are last to be heardstill available in short-term memory Limits of Working Memory  Accuracy of recall determined by the length of the interval between presentation of the _______ and when the recall was requested (approx 20 sec)  With unexpected distractions, working memory seriously disrupted (Muter)  Chunking- process in which information is simplified by rules, which make it easily remembered once the rules are learned  limit of short-term memory is 7 chunks, but not necessarily 7 individual items; depends on the particular rules we use to organize it  ex. 1357924680 is easy to retain in short-term memorywe can remember a rule better than 10 independent and meaningless numbers capacity for short-term memory depends on how much meaning the information has Baddeley: working memory consists of several components 1. maintains verbal info 2. retains memories of visual stimuli 3. stores general info Phonological short-term memory- short term memory for verbal info (sound and voice)  visually presented info gets encoded acoustically  Conrad: briefly showed people lists of six letters/made them write them down  Errors made were acoustic, not visual (B instead of V (sound similar) more prevalent than F instead of T (look familiar) may be produced by activity in the auditory system, circuits of neurons in the auditory association complex **However, also… Subvocal articulation- an unvoiced speech utterance (thinking without saying something) though no actual movement occurs, possible that activity occurs in neural circuits of brain that normally control speech ex. when we imagine saying something, the ‘voice in our head’ controlled by activity of neurons in the motor association complex **Phonological codes stored in long term memory help to strengthen the rehearsed information Evidence of phonological short term memory  Conduction aphasia- inability to remember words that are heard, although they usually be understood and responded to appropriately deficit in phonological working memory  Can talk and comprehend what others are saying, but poor at repeating what’s said  Caused by damage to Wernicke’s (perception of speech) and Broca’s (production of speech) areas in brain  Conduction aphasia disconnects regions of brain involved in speech perception/production, perhaps the damage disrupts acoustical short-term memory by making subvocal verbal rehearsal impossible Visual Working Memory  Much of the info we receive is from the visual system is non-verbal--> we possess a working memory that contains visual info (contained from immediate environment, or from long term memory)  Much of what we see is familiarvisual memory doesn’t have to encode details o Ex. our short term memory of a dog doesn’t need to store all its visual features, already have mental images of dogs in our long-term memory (prototype selected to fit the bill)  Degroot: chess experiment, showed experts and novices chessboards o If game in progress, experts could glance away from the board, repeat piece positions, novices could not o However, if the pieces were placed haphazardly on board, experts can’t repeat piece positions better than novice o they’re short term memories for the positions depended on the organizational rules stored in long-term memory as a result of years playing chess  can manipulate visual info in working memory  shepard and metzler drawings experiment: mental manipulation to rotate images to coincide with drawingspeople accurate in judging If shapes are the same Loss of info from short-term memory  maintained in working memory as long as its rehearsed, interference leads to loss of short term info (decay)  ex. juggling plates= with increased skill and effort the plates don’t drop (decay), any other distraction or competing behavior will reduce the amount being juggled Learning and Encoding in Long-Term Memory The Consolidation Hypothesis  traditional view of memory- sensory and short-term memory represent info in its active stateresult of brain processes that keep the info active  Consolidation- process by which info in short-term memory changes to long-term memory (physical changes that occur in neurons in brain)  Consolidated info =long term memory,  rehearsal allows consolidation to occur, can also happen without awareness  Best evidence comes from events that disrupt brain functioning o Blow to head affects memory, disrupts the balance in ions surrounding brain cellslarge metabolic changes o Dutch amateur boxers given standard tests for memory ability before and after a boxing match, compared to non-boxers who simply exercisedboxer scores showed significant impairments o Retrograde amnesia-severe case of injuryloss of ability to retrieve memories of one’s past, particularly memories of episodic or autobiographical events, because of damage to the brain’s centres for consolidation o Retrograde amnesia- recent memories more strongly affected than older ones (less time to have had been consolidated=weaker) Consolidation and the “Genetic Action Potential”  Hebb’s learning concept- synaptic connections formed or strengthened  Consolidation of memory therefore involves synaptic structures, the synthesis of proteins  David Clayton- molecular activity of genes should be considered in information terms like action potential’genomic action potential’  Immediate-early genes (IEG)- genes which can be activated, or induced, without the synthesis of proteinsthe first part of a chain triggered by events like an action potential o ex. birds use songs to identify other members of their species  calls are complex acoustically, learned when bird is young by listening to an adult tutor  song is then stored in memory and used, fine-tuned in adulthood  memory partly the result of a particular IEG with ZENK (song gene name)  Listening to birdsong increased genetic ZENK activity in adult birds The Levels of Processing Hypothesis  Previous assumptions: o All info gets into long-term memory only after passing through short- term memory o The most important factor determining whether a particular piece of info reaches long-term memory is time spent in short term memory  Craik and Lockhart: the act of rehearsal may effectively keep info in short- term memory but does not guarantee the establishment of long-term memories  Maintenance Rehearsal: the rote repetition of info; repeating a given item over and over again o Maintains info in short term memory, but does not necessarily result in lasting changes  Elaborative Rehearsal: information processing on a meaningful level o forming associations, attending to material meaning, thinking about it o We elaborate on new info by recollecting related info already in long- term memory o Memory more effectively established if the item is presented in a rich context  Ex. He dropped a watch Vs. The old man hobbled across the room and picked up the valuable watch o The second sentence provides more info, a more complex imagemakes the memory more distinctive and easier to be singled out from all the other memories we have Craik and Lockhart: a levels-of-processing framework for understanding the way info enters long-term memory o Sensory info can be analyzed on different levels, from shallow (superficial) to deep (complex) o Depending on the level of analysis by paying attention to different features of the stimulus, superficial characteristics will be stored, or complex characteristics will be o Ex. Consider the word TREE  Can see the word written in all CAPSsurface features (size or shape)  Shallow Processing: analysis of surface features (superficial characteristics of a stimulus)  OR  Can think about how a tree differs from other plants, what kinds of food they provide, etc… semantic features (refer to a word’s meaning)  Deep Processing: analysis of the complex characteristics of a stimulus, such as its meaning or its relationship to other stimuli o Elaborative Rehearsal is an example of deep processing, leads to better retention Knowledge, Encoding, Learning o Merely possessing knowledge doesn’t facilitate recallwhat’s more important is what happens during the encoding of information o Effortful Processing: practicing or rehearsing information through either shallow or deep processing o Automatic Processing: The formation of memories of events and experiences with little or no attention or effortmakes learning easy, but most learning is effortful o Includes frequency, time, and place o Ex. The more you concentrate on studies, the more likely you’ll do well on an exam BUT experience also dictates that you have stored info in memory you haven’t rehearsed in the first place Encoding specificity: The principle that how we encode information determines our ability to retrieve it later o Ex. you’re read a list of words for recall o Beet, melody, tune, jazz o Because of musical context, might’ve encoded beet as beat o Meaningful elaboration during encoding is helpful and necessary o The time to make information meaningful is during encoding Criticisms of the Levels of Processing Hypothesis o Distinction between ‘shallow’ and ‘deep’ not rigorously defined o Most instances of encoding cannot be categorized o ‘depth’ cannot be fully understood o some psychologists criticize the assertion that tasks that encourage them to focus on superficial features of stimuli inevitably lead to poorer memory o ex. after reading something new, can often remember where the info is on page Improving Long-Term Memory through Mnemonics o Mnemonic systems: A special technique consciously employed in an attempt to improve memory/ employ info already stored in long-term memory to make memorization easier o Make info more elaborateadditional info makes it easier to recall o Organizes info into a cohesive whole so retrieval of one part ensures retrieval of the restease of learning info depends on how well it fits with what we already know o Method of Loci: A mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are mentally associated with specific physical locations or landmarks o To learn a list of words, visualize each word in a particular location in a memorized place and picture the a
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