# PSYC 101 Lecture Notes - Base Rate, Confirmation Bias, Concept Learning

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Chapter 11 – Thinking

Cognition = Thinking = mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and

communicating info

Cognitive Psychology:

Concept formation

Problem solving

Decision making

Judgement formation

Reasoning is problem solving.

Deductive reasoning: what, if any conclusions necessarily follow?

Inductive: what is the probability that those conclusions are true?

Convergent thinking: Lots of data pooled to converge on an answer.

Divergent thinking: Bits of info we have can be combined in a lot of ways to give us a lot of

different answers. Example: How many different uses can you find for a brick? (Other than

building things).

Insight –

Sudden and often novel realization of the solution to the problem.

Contrasts with strategy-based solutions.

Wolfgang Kohler’s experiment on insight by a chimpanzee (1930s): Bananas hanging above the

chimp. Theres crates all around him which are not high enough to reach the bananas. He gets

the idea of piling the crates together and then going up and getting the bananas.

A task that gives the feeling of insight when you solve each problem is the Remote Associates

Test.

Logic is a formal system of rules of inference (algorithms) for evaluating the validity of

arguments that draw conclusions from premises.

Conditional: If P, then Q. P is true Then Q is true

Categorical: All A are B. Some B are C Some A are C

Concept: mental grouping of similar objects, events or people

Countries

Animals