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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Catherine( Cathy) Rankin

Hearing: Sound waves Audition is the sense of hearing. Auditory perception depends upon sound waves interacting with structures of the ear. Sound waves are changes over time in the pressure of an elastic medium (for example, air or water). Without air (or another elastic medium) there can be no sound waves, thus no sound. If a tree falls in the forest and no one is around to hear it…it creates sound waves. Waves received by ears, transduced into neural signals. Without ears to hear it, the waves are just waves, not sound. Changes in air pressure are the sound signals. Distance between 2 peaks is the wavelength. Number of peaks reaching the ear per second is the frequency. Difference between peak pressure and minimum pressure is the amplitude. Frequency relates to the pitch we perceive. Amplitude relates to the loudness we perceive - Expressed in deciBels (dB). 20,000 Hz = highest frequency humans can hear 100-4000 Hz = average useful range of the human voice 27 Hz = Lowest note on a piano Dimensions of Sound: Pitch: how high a note appears, associated with frequency. Like hue Loudness: Associated with amplitude. Like Brightness. Timbre: Associated with purity or complexity, gives sounds identity. Like saturation. Outer ear:  Pinna – collect and direct sound into auditory canal  Auditory canal – amplify and funnel sound to tympanic membrane  Tympanic membrane (ear drum) - ________________ Middle Ear:  Malleus (hammer) – vibrates and move the Incus  Incus (anvil) – vibrates and move the stapes  Stapes (stirrup) – vibrate against oval window or cochlea. Inner ear:  Cochlea – filled with fluid and contains receptors for hearing (Hair cells)  Basilar Membrane – divides inner length of cochlea and holds the hair cells. Measuring Sounds: Sound intensity is measured in Bels (named after Alexander Graham Bell) but that unit is too large so we use tenths of Bels or deciBels. How do we perceive pitch? Frequency theory  Firing rates of hair cells create pitch sensation  Neural impulses track the wave peaks  Explains frequencies below 1000 Hz but not above Volley Principle Get notes for this section from online PDF. Place Theory - pitch determined by the point of maximal vibration on basilar membrane. The pattern of vibration along the basilar membrane depends on the frequency of the sound wave. Olfactory System Olfactory bulb – these identify scent molecules, with care caught and dissolved in nasal mucous. Humans have 5 million olfactory receptors. German Shepherds have 225 million. Bloodhounds have 300 million. The optic nerve sends visual information to the __________ which in turn sends it to _________. Answer: thalamus, primary visual cortex. B. Take notes on this whole section again. Rankin was away  Terrible lectures Rankin back: As parallel lines recede, they appear to converge on a vanishing point somewhere in the distance giving us an impressing of depth. This cue is called:
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