PSYC 101 Lecture Notes - Palatine Uvula, Narcolepsy, Brain Damage
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Sleep: Altered Consciousness
3 standard psychophysiological measures of sleep:
EEG – Electroencephalography
Electrical activity in the brain
EOG – Electrooculography
Measures eye movements
EMG – Electromyaphography
EEG stages of sleep:
Relaxed wakefulness: Alpha waves. Low amplitude, high frequency waves. 8-12Hz
Stage 1: Theta waves. High amplitude, low frequency.
Stage 2: Sleep spindles, K-complex. Spindles: High amplitude, high frequency (12-14Hz). K-
Complex: Very high amplitude, low frequency.
Stages 3 and 4: Delta Waves. Low frequency, high amplitude (1-2Hz)
REM or dreaming sleep: Beta waves and theta waves. High frequency, low amplitude.
Children: More deep sleep stages.
Young adults: A combination of stages ¾ and stages ½.
Elderly: Very rarely in stages ¾. Wake up more often during the night.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Dreams are symbolic representations of repressed sexual conflict.
The dream’s latent content (desires) expressed symbolically in its manifest content (plot). No
convincing evidence of all this.
Allan Hobson (1989): Activation Synthesis Hypotheses: Dreams reflect random activity of
cerebral circuits during REM sleep. These random neural firings produce fragmentary images
that our brains make sense of by creating stories. According to this view, dreams are deeply